Should we be concerned about the vitamin D status of athletes?
ABSTRACT A surprisingly high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency has recently been reported worldwide. Although very little is known about vitamin D status among athletes, a few studies suggest that poor vitamin D status is also a problem in athletic populations. It is well recognized that vitamin D is necessary for optimal bone health, but emerging evidence is finding that vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of autoimmune diseases and nonskeletal chronic diseases and can also have a profound effect on human immunity, inflammation, and muscle function (in the elderly). Thus, it is likely that compromised vitamin D status can affect an athlete's overall health and ability to train (i.e., by affecting bone health, innate immunity, and exercise-related immunity and inflammation). Although further research in this area is needed, it is important that sports nutritionists assess vitamin D (as well as calcium) intake and make appropriate recommendations that will help athletes achieve adequate vitamin D status: serum 25(OH)D of at least 75 or 80 nmol/L. These recommendations can include regular safe sun exposure (twice a week between the hours of 10 a.m. and 3 p.m. on the arms and legs for 5-30 min, depending on season, latitude, and skin pigmentation) or dietary supplementation with 1,000-2,000 IU vitamin D3 per day. Although this is significantly higher than what is currently considered the adequate intake, recent research demonstrates these levels to be safe and possibly necessary to maintain adequate 25(OH)D concentrations.
- SourceAvailable from: Aleksandra Zagrodna (Kopeć)[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Vitamin D is synthesised in the skin during exposure to sunlight. The fundamental roles of vitamin D are the regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism and bone mineralisation. Low vitamin D levels in athletes may adversely affect their exercise capabilities. The aim of our study was to investigate changes in serum levels of 25(OH)D3, calcium and bone turnover markers in football players in two training periods differing in the exposure to sunlight (after the summer period and after the winter period). We investigated 24 Polish professional soccer players. Serum levels of the following parameters were determined: 25(OH)D3, calcium, osteocalcin (OC), parathormone (PTH), procollagen type I N - terminal peptide (P1NP), and beta - CrossLaps (beta - CTx). We showed significantly higher levels of 25(OH)D3 and calcium and lower levels of PTH after the summer period versus the winter period. No significant differences in the levels of bone turnover markers were found. Furthermore, we did not observe any significant correlations between the levels of 25(OH)D3 and other parameters. Normal levels of 25(OH)D3 were observed in 50% of the players after the summer period and only in 16.7% of the players after the winter period. It is justified to measure the levels of 25(OH)D3, calcium and PTH in soccer players, especially after the winter period, when the exposure to sunlight is limited.Journal of Human Kinetics 09/2013; 38:135-140. DOI:10.2478/hukin-2013-0053 · 0.70 Impact Factor
Article: Vegetarian Diet and Athletes[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In dieser Rubrik werden „Position-Statements“ renommierter nationaler und internationaler Fachgesellschaften publiziert. Diesmal präsentieren wir Ihnen eine Publikation der FIMS (Fédération Internationale de Médecine du Sport - International Federation of Sports Medicine) - www.fims.org A balanced intake of macro- and micro nutrients is crucially important for conditioning, recovery from fatigue after exercise, as well as for injury prevention. An increasing number of athletes have adopted vegetarian diets for one or more reasons and actually there is no available evidence to support either a beneficial or a detrimental effect of a vegetarian diet on sport performance. Therefore, it is widely accepted that appropriately planned vegetarian diets can provide sufficient nutrient energy with an appropriate range of carbohydrate, fat, and protein intake to support performance and health. On the other hand, questions have been raised by some investigators regarding unique risks of the vegetarian diet, including oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea, iron deficiency, vitamin B12 deficiency, vitamin D deficiency, and impaired mineral status. In the present overview those items are described with the aim of identifying intervention warnings for vegetarian athletes.06/2009; 39(1):20-24. DOI:10.1007/s12534-009-0017-y
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was first, to determine if Division III female track and field athletes met the nutrient recommendations and second, to identify barriers the athletes faced trying to receive adequate nutrient intake. Twenty-six females were tested once during their competitive season for an interview and basic background information. The testing session included discussion of a twenty-four hour eating behavior journal (EBJ), eating habits, physical activity record, and background questionnaire. An ANOVA was used to determine any differences that occurred in nutrients between events. Frequencies of participants meeting the nutritional requirements were used to determine if athletes fell above or below recommendations. Frequency tests were also conducted on the questionnaire to determine barriers to healthy eating. The dietary intake of Division III female track and field athletes was found insufficient for an active athletic population. Frequencies revealed that being rushed during meal time was the main encountered barrier.