Protective effects of NSAIDs on the development of Alzheimer disease

Boston University School of Medicine, Clinical Epidemiology Research and Training Unit, 650 Albany St., Suite X200, Boston, MA 02118, USA.
Neurology (Impact Factor: 8.3). 05/2008; 70(19):1672-7. DOI: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000311269.57716.63
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may protect against Alzheimer disease (AD), but observational studies and trials have offered contradictory results. Prior studies have also been relatively short and small. We examined the effects on AD risk of NSAID use for >5 years and of NSAIDs that suppress formation of A beta (1-42) amyloid in a large health care database.
Cases were veterans aged 55 years and older with incident AD using the US Veterans Affairs Health Care system. Matched controls were drawn from the same population. NSAID exposure was categorized into seven time periods: no use, <or=1 year, >1 but <or=2 years, and so on. Using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for race and comorbidities, we tested the association between AD development and the use of 1) any NSAID, 2) any NSAID excluding nonacetylated salicylates, 3) each NSAID class, 4) each individual NSAID, and 5) A beta (1-42)-suppressing NSAIDs.
We identified 49,349 cases and 196,850 controls. Compared with no NSAID use, the adjusted odds ratios for AD among NSAID users decreased from 0.98 for <or=1 year of use (95% CI 0.95-1.00) to 0.76 for >5 years of use (0.68-0.85). For users of ibuprofen, it decreased from 1.03 (1.00-1.06) to 0.56 (0.42-0.75). Effects of other NSAID classes and individual NSAIDs were inconsistent. There was no difference between a group of A beta (1-42)-suppressing NSAIDs and others. Discussion: Long-term nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use was protective against Alzheimer disease. Findings were clearest for ibuprofen. A beta (1-42)-suppressing NSAIDs did not differ from others.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The common non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen has been associated with a reduced risk of some age-related pathologies. However, a general pro-longevity role for ibuprofen and its mechanistic basis remains unclear. Here we show that ibuprofen increased the lifespan of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, indicative of conserved eukaryotic longevity effects. Studies in yeast indicate that ibuprofen destabilizes the Tat2p permease and inhibits tryptophan uptake. Loss of Tat2p increased replicative lifespan (RLS), but ibuprofen did not increase RLS when Tat2p was stabilized or in an already long-lived strain background impaired for aromatic amino acid uptake. Concomitant with lifespan extension, ibuprofen moderately reduced cell size at birth, leading to a delay in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Similar changes in cell cycle progression were evident in a large dataset of replicatively long-lived yeast deletion strains. These results point to fundamental cell cycle signatures linked with longevity, implicate aromatic amino acid import in aging and identify a largely safe drug that extends lifespan across different kingdoms of life.
    PLoS Genetics 12/2014; 10(12):e1004860. DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004860 · 8.17 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A Saururus chinensis Baill (SC) has been used by Native Americans, early colonists and practitioners of Korean traditional medicine for treating several diseases including cancer, rheumatoid arthritis and edema. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of SC extract in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated neuroinflammatory responses in BV-2 microglial cells. The effects of SC on the LPS-induced neuroinflammatory responses in BV-2 microglial cells were assessed by Western blotting, RT-PCR and immunofluorescence labeling techniques. DPPH and alkyl radical scavenging assay was performed to evaluate the anti-oxidant effects. Comparisons between groups were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's multiple comparisons test using GraphPad Prism V5.01 software. Pre-treatment with SC extract (1, 5 and 10 mug/mL) significantly (p < 0.001 at 10 mug/mL) and concentration dependently inhibited LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and suppressed the inflammatory cytokine levels such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6 in BV-2 microglial cells (p < 0.001 at 10 mug/mL). Further, SC suppressed the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) activation by blocking the degradation of IkappaB-alpha. SC also exhibited profound anti-oxidant effects by scavenging 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (IC50: 0.055 mg/mL) and alkyl radicals (IC50: 0.349 mg/mL). High performance liquid chromatography finger printing analysis of SC revealed quercetin (QCT) as one of the major constituents compared with reference standard. QCT also inhibited the excessive release of NO, and inhibited the increased expressional levels of IL-6, iNOS and COX-2 in LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells. Our results indicated that SC inhibited the LPS-stimulated neuroinflammatory responses in BV-2 microglia via regulation of NF-kappaB signaling. The antioxidant active constituents of SC might be partly involved in delivering such effects. Based on the traditional claims and our present results SC can be potentially used in treating inflammatory-mediated neurodegenerative diseases.
    BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 12/2014; 14(1):502. DOI:10.1186/1472-6882-14-502 · 1.88 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The immune response of the CNS is a defense mechanism activated upon injury to initiate repair mechanisms while chronic over-activation of the CNS immune system (termed neuroinflammation) may exacerbate injury. The latter is implicated in a variety of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, HIV dementia, and prion diseases. Cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2), which are key enzymes in the conversion of arachidonic acid into bioactive prostanoids, play a central role in the inflammatory cascade. J2 prostaglandins are endogenous toxic products of cyclooxygenases, and because their levels are significantly increased upon brain injury, they are actively involved in neuronal dysfunction induced by pro-inflammatory stimuli. In this review, we highlight the mechanisms by which J2 prostaglandins (1) exert their actions, (2) potentially contribute to the transition from acute to chronic inflammation and to the spreading of neuropathology, (3) disturb the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and mitochondrial function, and (4) contribute to neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, as well as stroke, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and demyelination in Krabbe disease. We conclude by discussing the therapeutic potential of targeting the J2 prostaglandin pathway to prevent/delay neurodegeneration associated with neuroinflammation. In this context, we suggest a shift from the traditional view that cyclooxygenases are the most appropriate targets to treat neuroinflammation, to the notion that J2 prostaglandin pathways and other neurotoxic prostaglandins downstream from cyclooxygenases, would offer significant benefits as more effective therapeutic targets to treat chronic neurodegenerative diseases, while minimizing adverse side effects.
    Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience 01/2014; 7:104. DOI:10.3389/fnmol.2014.00104


Available from