Sequence of conjugative plasmid pIP1206 mediating resistance to aminoglycosides by 16S rRNA methylation and to hydrophilic fluoroquinolones by efflux.
ABSTRACT Self-transferable IncFI plasmid pIP1206, isolated from an Escherichia coli clinical isolate, carries two new resistance determinants: qepA, which confers resistance to hydrophylic fluoroquinolones by efflux, and rmtB, which specifies a 16S rRNA methylase conferring high-level aminoglycoside resistance. Analysis of the 168,113-bp sequence (51% G+C) revealed that pIP1206 was composed of several subregions separated by copies of insertion sequences. Of 151 open reading frames, 56 (37%) were also present in pRSB107, isolated from a bacterium in a sewage treatment plant. pIP1206 contained four replication regions (RepFIA, RepFIB, and two partial RepFII regions) and a transfer region 91% identical with that of pAPEC-O1-ColBM, a plasmid isolated from an avian pathogenic E. coli. A putative oriT region was found upstream from the transfer region. The antibiotic resistance genes tet(A), catA1, bla(TEM-1), rmtB, and qepA were clustered in a 33.5-kb fragment delineated by two IS26 elements that also carried a class 1 integron, including the sulI, qacEDelta1, aad4, and dfrA17 genes and Tn10, Tn21, and Tn3-like transposons. The plasmid also possessed a raffinose operon, an arginine deiminase pathway, a putative iron acquisition gene cluster, an S-methylmethionine metabolism operon, two virulence-associated genes, and a type I DNA restriction-modification (R-M) system. Three toxin/antitoxin systems and the R-M system ensured stabilization of the plasmid in the host bacteria. These data suggest that the mosaic structure of pIP1206 could have resulted from recombination between pRSB107 and a pAPEC-O1-ColBM-like plasmid, combined with structural rearrangements associated with acquisition of additional DNA by recombination and of mobile genetic elements by transposition.
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ABSTRACT: Two plasmid-carried restriction-modification (R-M) systems, EcoRI (from pMB1 of Escherichia coli) and Bsp6I (from pXH13 of Bacillus sp. strain RFL6), enhance plasmid segregational stability in E. coli and Bacillus subtilis, respectively. Inactivation of the endonuclease or the presence of the methylase in trans abolish the stabilizing activity of the R-M systems. We propose that R-M systems mediate plasmid segregational stability by postsegregational killing of plasmid-free cells. Plasmid-encoded methyltransferase modifies host DNA and thus prevents its digestion by the restriction endonuclease. Plasmid loss entails degradation and/or dilution of the methylase during cell growth and appearance of unmethylated sites in the chromosome. Double-strand breaks, introduced at these sites by the endonuclease, eventually cause the death of the plasmid-free cells. Contribution to plasmid stability is a previously unrecognized biological role of the R-M systems.Journal of Bacteriology 07/1995; 177(12):3451-4. · 3.83 Impact Factor
Article: Two DNA recognition domains of the specificity polypeptides of a family of type I restriction enzymes.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The hsd genes of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella potsdam encode related type I restriction and modification systems designated SB and SP, respectively; the polypeptide encoded by the hsdS gene dictates the DNA sequence recognized. The hsdS genes of the SB and SP systems have a conserved sequence of around 100 base pairs flanked by two nonhomologous (variable) regions of around 500 base pairs. Recombination between the hsdS genes of SB and SP generated a system (SQ) with a different recognition specificity. We have localized the position of the crossover in the central conserved region by analysis of nucleotide sequences. Concomitant with the generation of a new combination of flanking variable regions is the recombination of minor differences in the central conserved region. A polypeptide domain encoded on the 5' side of the crossover dictates recognition of the trinucleotide component of the target sequence, and a second domain, encoded on the 3' side of the crossover, similarly governs recognition of the tetra- or penta-nucleotide component. Our analysis implicates at least parts of the variable regions in the determination of the specificity of interaction between protein and DNA. Furthermore, the trinucleotide components of the recognition sequences of S. typhimurium and Escherichia coli K-12 are identical, and the 5' segments of their hsdS genes are strikingly homologous rather than variable.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/1987; 83(24):9368-72. · 9.68 Impact Factor
Article: Role of nine repeating sequences of the mini-F genome for expression of F-specific incompatibility phenotype and copy number control.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: An autonomously replicating 2,248-base-pair DNA segment of the mini-F plasmid carries nine 19-base-pair repeating sequences. Five of the repeats are arranged in one direction and form the right cluster, whereas the remaining four repeats are arranged in the opposite direction and form the left cluster (Murotsu et al., Gene 15:257-271, 1981). Each cluster, cloned separately into the multicopy plasmid vector pBR322, exhibited a strong F-specific incompatibility phenotype (FIP). These clusters were thought to be responsible for the expression of IncB and IncC phenotypes, causing a switchoff function on mini-F replication. Mini-F DNA fragments containing two, three, or more than four repeats were inserted into pBR322. Cells carrying these recombinant plasmids exhibited, respectively, no, intermediate, and strong FIP intensity. Cloning of five repeats into pSC101, whose copy number is about 6 in contrast to 20 for pBR322, resulted in an FIP of intermediate intensity. Thus, the intensity of FIP reflects the dosage of repeats in a cell. The five repeats in the right cluster were eliminated from the mini-F derivative without impairing its autonomous-replicating ability (Bergquist et al., J. Bacteriol. 147:888-889, 1981; Kline and Palchavdhuri, Plasmid 4:281-289). Such deletion, however, caused a sixfold elevation of the copy number. When the eliminated cluster of repeats was reinserted in the derivative, the copy number was lowered to the original value, viz., 1 to 2. The position and orientation of this insertion was not important in the copy number control. Thus, the repeats are also related to copy number control. A model to account for the role of the repeating sequences in the control of copy number and FIP is discussed.Journal of Bacteriology 08/1983; 155(1):337-44. · 3.83 Impact Factor