Cradle-loop barrels and the concept of metafolds in protein classification by natural descent.
ABSTRACT Current classification systems for protein structure show many inconsistencies both within and between systems. The metafold concept was introduced to identify fold similarities by consensus and thus provide a more unified view of fold space. Using cradle-loop barrels as an example, we propose to use the metafold as the next hierarchical level above the fold, encompassing a group of topologically related folds for which a homologous relationship has been substantiated. We see this as an important step on the way to a classification of proteins by natural descent.
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ABSTRACT: The functional requirement to form and maintain the active site structure probably exerts a strong selective pressure on a protein to adopt just one stable and evolutionarily conserved fold. Nonetheless, new evidence suggests the likelihood of protein fold being neither physically nor biologically invariant. Alternative folds discovered in several proteins are composed of constant and variable parts. The latter display context-dependent conformations and a tendency to form new oligomeric interfaces. In turn, oligomerisation mediates fold evolution without loss of protein function. Gene duplication breaks down homo-oligomeric symmetry and relieves the pressure to maintain the local architecture of redundant active sites; this can lead to further structural changes.Current Opinion in Structural Biology 07/2006; 16(3):399-408. · 8.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Several methods of structural classification have been developed to introduce some order to the large amount of data present in the Protein Data Bank. Such methods facilitate structural comparisons and provide a greater understanding of structure and function. The most widely used and comprehensive databases are SCOP, CATH and FSSP, which represent three unique methods of classifying protein structures: purely manual, a combination of manual and automated, and purely automated, respectively. In order to develop reliable template libraries and benchmarks for protein-fold recognition, a systematic comparison of these databases has been carried out to determine their overall agreement in classifying protein structures. Approximately two-thirds of the protein chains in each database are common to all three databases. Despite employing different methods, and basing their systems on different rules of protein structure and taxonomy, SCOP, CATH and FSSP agree on the majority of their classifications. Discrepancies and inconsistencies are accounted for by a small number of explanations. Other interesting features have been identified, and various differences between manual and automatic classification methods are presented. Using these databases requires an understanding of the rules upon which they are based; each method offers certain advantages depending on the biological requirements and knowledge of the user. The degree of discrepancy between the systems also has an impact on reliability of prediction methods that employ these schemes as benchmarks. To generate accurate fold templates for threading, we extract information from a consensus database, encompassing agreements between SCOP, CATH and FSSP.Structure 10/1999; 7(9):1099-112. · 5.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Six-stranded beta barrels with a pseudo-twofold axis are found in several proteins. One group comprises a Greek-key structure with all strands antiparallel; an example is the N-terminal domain of ferredoxin reductase. Others involve parallel strands forming two psi structures (the double-psi beta barrel). A recently discovered example of the latter class is aspartate-alpha-decarboxylase (ADC) from Escherichia coli, a pyruvoyl-dependent tetrameric enzyme involved in the synthesis of pantothenate. Visual inspection and automated database searches identified the six-stranded double-psi beta barrel in ADC, Rhodobacter sphaeroides dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) reductase, E. coli formate dehydrogenase H (FDHH), the plant defense protein barwin, Humicola insolens endoglucanase V (EGV) and, with a circular permutation, in the aspartic proteinases. Structure-based sequence alignments revealed several interactions including hydrophobic contacts or sidechain-mainchain hydrogen bonds that position the middle beta strand under a psi loop, which may significantly contribute to stabilizing the fold. The identification of key interactions allowed the filtering of weak sequence similarities to some of these proteins, which had been detected by sequence database searches. This led to the prediction of the double-psi beta-barrel domain in several families of proteins in eukaryotes and archaea. The structure comparison and clustering study of double-psi beta barrels suggests that there could be a common homodimeric ancestor to ADC, FDHH and DMSO reductase, and also to barwin and EGV. There are other protein families with unknown structure that are likely to adopt the same fold. In the known structures, the protein active sites cluster around the psi loop, indicating that its rigidity, protrusion and free mainchain functional groups may be well suited to providing a framework for catalysis.Structure 03/1999; 7(2):227-36. · 5.99 Impact Factor