Muscle wastage in heart failure: orphan of the heart failure.
ABSTRACT The patients with heart failure (HF) often exhibit some degree of muscle wasting restricted to the lower limbs. This loss of tissue may become more extensive in some patients, usually when their HF is more advanced, and may affect all body compartments. The underlying metabolic causes are very complex and differ from patient to patient. Three essential contributors are dietary deficiency and loss of nutrients through the digestive tract and metabolic dysfunction. The development of cachexia is an ominous sign and new drugs will be added into our therapeutic armamentarium to fight against cardiac cachexia in the near-future.
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ABSTRACT: Recent studies have focused their attention on the role of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in the development of heart failure. First recognized as an endotoxin-induced serum factor that caused necrosis of tumors and cachexia, it is now recognized that TNF participates in the pathophysiology of a group of inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease. The normal heart does not express TNF; however, the failing heart produces robust quantities. Furthermore, there is a direct relationship between the level of TNF expression and the severity of disease. In addition, both in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrate that TNF effects cellular and biochemical changes that mirror those seen in patients with congestive heart failure. Furthermore, in animal models, the development of the heart failure phenotype can be abrogated at least in part by anticytokine therapy. Based on information from experimental studies, investigators are now evaluating the clinical efficacy of novel anticytokine and anti-TNF strategies in patients with heart failure; one such strategy is the use of a recombinantly produced chimeric TNF alpha soluble receptor. Thus, in view of the emerging importance of proinflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of heart disease, we review the biology of TNF, its role in inflammatory diseases, the effects of TNF on the physiology of the heart and the development of clinical strategies that target the cytokine pathways.Journal of the American College of Cardiology 04/2000; 35(3):537-44. · 14.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Immune activation in patients with chronic heart failure may be secondary to endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) action. We investigated the hypothesis that altered gut permeability with bacterial translocation and endotoxaemia would be increased in patients with oedema secondary to congestive heart failure. We compared 20 patients who had chronic heart failure with recent-onset peripheral oedema (mean age 64 years [SD 10], New York Heart Association [NYHA] class 3.3 [0.7]), 20 stable non-oedematous patients with chronic heart failure (mean age 63 years , NYHA class 2.6 [0.7]), and 14 healthy volunteers (mean age 55 years ). Biochemical markers of endotoxaemia, inflammation, and immune activation were measured. Ten patients were studied within 1 week of complete resolution of oedema. Five patients survived longer than 6 months and were restudied again after remaining free of oedema for more than 3 months. Mean endotoxin concentrations were higher in oedematous patients with chronic heart failure than in stable patients with chronic heart failure (0.74 [SD 0.45] vs 0.37 EU/mL [0.23], p=0.0009) and controls (0.46 EU/mL [0.21], p=0.02). Oedematous patients had the highest concentrations of several cytokines. After short-term diuretic treatment, endotoxin concentrations decreased from 0.84 EU/mL [0.49] to 0.45 EU/mL [0.21], p<0.05) but cytokines remained raised. After freedom of oedema for more than 3 months after oedema resolved, endotoxin concentrations remained unchanged from the previous visit (0.49 EU/mL [0.06], p=0.45). Raised concentrations of endotoxin and cytokines are found in patients with chronic heart failure during acute oedematous exacerbation. Intensified diuretic treatment can normalise endotoxin concentrations. Our preliminary findings suggest that endotoxin may trigger immune activation in patients with chronic heart failure during oedematous episodes.The Lancet 05/1999; 353(9167):1838-42. · 39.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We sought to determine whether serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels are elevated in patients with hemodynamically significant pressure and volume overload. It has been previously shown that TNF-alpha messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein are rapidly expressed in the hearts of animal models subjected to abrupt hemodynamic overloading. The clinical significance of these experimental findings has not been tested in pathophysiologically relevant clinical models in human subjects. We prospectively measured serum TNF-alpha levels and serum TNF receptor 1 and 2 levels in 21 patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS), in 26 patients with 3+ to 4+ mitral regurgitation (MR) and in normal age- and gender-matched control subjects. Patients with AS and MR were either in New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class I or II and had no significant coronary disease. We compared the cytokine levels among the groups using analysis of variance. We related cytokine levels to the severity of AS using simple regression analysis. Serum TNF-alpha levels in patients with AS (2.1 +/- 1.6 pg/ml, n = 21) and MR (1.3 +/-0.7 pg/ml, n = 26) were significantly higher than those in the control subjects (0.7 +/-0.2 pg/ml, n = 28). Serum TNF receptor 1 and 2 levels were also higher in patients with AS and MR than in control subjects. Cytokine levels were higher in patients in NYHA class II than in those in class I. In patients with a normal ejection fraction (>50%, n = 16), there was a mild positive correlation (r = 0.56, p = 0.025) between serum TNF-alpha levels and the mean gradient across the aortic valve. This study demonstrates that serum TNF-alpha is elevated in patients with chronic hemodynamic overloading and early cardiac decompensation. Furthermore, these findings suggest not only that peripheral TNF-alpha levels correlate with the severity of the hemodynamic pressure overload, but also that peripheral TNF-alpha and TNF receptor levels increase in direct relation to deteriorating NYHA functional class.Journal of the American College of Cardiology 07/2000; 36(1):208-12. · 14.09 Impact Factor