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Green tea epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) reduces β-amyloid mediated cognitive impairment and modulates tau pathology in Alzheimer transgenic mice

Rashid Laboratory for Developmental Neurobiology, Silver Child Development Center, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, and Department of Neurosurgery, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33613, USA.
Brain Research (Impact Factor: 2.83). 07/2008; 1214:177-87. DOI: 10.1016/j.brainres.2008.02.107
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We previously reported that intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection (20 mg/kg) of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the main polyphenolic constituent of green tea, decreased beta-amyloid (Abeta) levels and plaques via promotion of the non-amyloidogenic alpha-secretase proteolytic pathway in "Swedish" mutant amyloid precursor protein overexpressing (APPsw, Tg) mice. Here, we find that EGCG administered orally in drinking water (50 mg/kg) similarly reduces Abeta deposition in these mice. Following a six month treatment of an 8 month old cohort, immunohistochemical analysis of coronal sections reveals that plaque burdens were reduced in the cingulate cortex, hippocampus, and entorhinal cortex by 54%, 43%, and 51%, respectively. Congo red plaque burdens were decreased in the cingulate cortex, hippocampus, and entorhinal cortex by 53%, 53%, and 58%, respectively as well. ELISA of brain homogenates of the treatment Tg mice revealed consistent reductions in both Abeta1-40 and 1-42 soluble and insoluble forms. In the present study we also investigated the effect EGCG administration had on tau pathology and cognition in Tg mice. Both i.p. and orally-treated Tg animals were found to have modulated tau profiles, with markedly suppressed sarkosyl-soluble phosphorylated tau isoforms. Radial arm water maze (RAWM) testing for working memory indicated that EGCG provided cognitive benefit to Tg mice with both i.p. and oral administration, although i.p.-treated animals showed a more pronounced benefit because of the greater impairment of their Tg controls at the time of testing. Taken together, these data further the notion of EGCG dietary supplementation as a potentially safe and effective prophylaxis for Alzheimer's disease.

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