Inactivation of avian influenza virus using common detergents and chemicals.

Department of Bioresources Engineering, University of Delaware, 264 Townsend Hall, Newark, DE 19716, USA.
Avian Diseases (Impact Factor: 1.73). 04/2008; 52(1):118-23.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Six disinfectant chemicals were tested individually for effectiveness against low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) A/H7N2/Chick/MinhMa/04. The tested agents included acetic acid (C2H4O2), citric acid (C6H8O7), calcium hypochlorite (Ca(ClO)2), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), a powdered laundry detergent with peroxygen (bleach), and a commercially available iodine/acid disinfectant. Four of the six chemicals, including acetic acid (5%), citric acid (1% and 3%), calcium hypochlorite (750 ppm), and sodium hypochlorite (750 ppm) effectively inactivated LPAIV on hard and nonporous surfaces. The conventional laundry detergent was tested at multiple concentrations and found to be suitable for inactivating LPAIV on hard and nonporous surfaces at 6 g/L. Only citric acid and commercially available iodine/acid disinfectant were found to be effective at inactivating LPAIV on both porous and nonporous surfaces.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Influenza A virus poses a major public health concern and is associated with annual epidemics and occasional pandemics. Influenza A H3N2 viruses, which are an important cause of human influenza, can infect birds and mammals. Contaminated undercooked poultry products including eggs with avian influenza virus constitute a possible risk of transmission to humans. In this study, a novel levulinic acid plus sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) sanitizer was evaluated for eggshell decontamination. Influenza A H3N2 virus-inoculated chicken eggshells were treated with a 5 % levulinic acid plus 2 % SDS, 2 % levulinic acid plus 1 % SDS, and 0.5 % levulinic acid plus 0.5 % SDS liquid solution for 1 min. Log reductions of viable viruses were observed by plaque assay. The 5 % levulinic acid plus 2 % SDS sanitizer provided the greatest level of influenza A H3N2 virus inactivation (2.23 log PFU), and differences in virus inactivation were observed for the various levulinic acid plus SDS concentrations tested (P ≤ 0.05). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating influenza A H3N2 virus inactivation on eggshells using a novel levulinic acid plus SDS sanitizer. The sanitizer may be useful for reducing egg contamination and preventing the spread of avian influenza virus to humans.
    Food and Environmental Virology 10/2013; · 2.51 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Evaluación de un nuevo proceso de desinfección para virus aviares. El compuesto químico metam-sodio se probó bajo tres concentraciones para determinar su capacidad de inactivar la infecciosidad del virus de influenza aviar de baja patogenicidad y del virus de la enfermedad infecciosa de la bolsa, utilizando cama contaminada como substrato. Independientemente de la concentración utilizada, el virus de la influenza aviar de baja patogenicidad fue inactivado dentro de la primera hora posterior a la adición del metam-sodio. El virus de la enfermedad infecciosa de la bolsa no se inactivó con la cantidad mas baja de metam-sodio, pero a concentraciones mayores el virus se inactivó dentro de la primera hora posterior a la aplicación. Estos resultados muestran que este compuesto es capaz de penetrar la cama e inactivar virus envueltos y no envueltos debido a su capacidad para formar el compuesto activo metil isotiocianato que actúa como un fumigante. Abbreviations: AIV = avian influenza virus; DMEM = Dulbecco's minimal essential medium; EID50 = egg infectious dose 50%; HA = hemagglutinin; HPAIV = highly pathogenic avian influenza virus; IBDV = infectious bursal disease virus; LPAIV = low pathogenicity avian influenza virus; MITC = methyl isothiocyanate; NA = neuraminidase; NAI = notifiable avian influenza; PBS = phosphate-buffered solution; RBC = chicken red blood cells; rpm = revolutions per minute; SPF = specific-pathogen free; TCID50 = tissue culture infectious dose 50%
    Avian Diseases 03/2010; · 1.73 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lead acetate (PbA) is one of the major environmental contaminants with grave toxicological consequences both in the developing and developed countries. The liver and erythrocyte antioxidant status and markers of oxidative were assessed. Exposure of rats to PbA led to significant decline (p<0.05) in hepatic and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and reduced glutathione (GSH) content. Similarly, malondialdehyde (MDA) and H2O2 concentrations were significantly (p<0.05) elevated. Histopathology and immunohistology of liver of rats exposed to PbA showed focal areas of necrosis and COX-2 expression after 6 weeks of PbA withdrawal. Taken together, hepatic and erythrocytes antioxidant defence system failed to recover after withdrawal of the exposed PbA for the period of the study. In conclusion, experimental animals exposed to PbA did not recover from hepatotoxicity and disruption of erythrocyte antioxidant defence system via free radical generation and oxidative stress.
    Environmental toxicology and pharmacology. 03/2014; 37(3):1202-1211.