Inactivation of avian influenza virus using common detergents and chemicals.
ABSTRACT Six disinfectant chemicals were tested individually for effectiveness against low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) A/H7N2/Chick/MinhMa/04. The tested agents included acetic acid (C2H4O2), citric acid (C6H8O7), calcium hypochlorite (Ca(ClO)2), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), a powdered laundry detergent with peroxygen (bleach), and a commercially available iodine/acid disinfectant. Four of the six chemicals, including acetic acid (5%), citric acid (1% and 3%), calcium hypochlorite (750 ppm), and sodium hypochlorite (750 ppm) effectively inactivated LPAIV on hard and nonporous surfaces. The conventional laundry detergent was tested at multiple concentrations and found to be suitable for inactivating LPAIV on hard and nonporous surfaces at 6 g/L. Only citric acid and commercially available iodine/acid disinfectant were found to be effective at inactivating LPAIV on both porous and nonporous surfaces.
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ABSTRACT: Influenza A virus poses a major public health concern and is associated with annual epidemics and occasional pandemics. Influenza A H3N2 viruses, which are an important cause of human influenza, can infect birds and mammals. Contaminated undercooked poultry products including eggs with avian influenza virus constitute a possible risk of transmission to humans. In this study, a novel levulinic acid plus sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) sanitizer was evaluated for eggshell decontamination. Influenza A H3N2 virus-inoculated chicken eggshells were treated with a 5 % levulinic acid plus 2 % SDS, 2 % levulinic acid plus 1 % SDS, and 0.5 % levulinic acid plus 0.5 % SDS liquid solution for 1 min. Log reductions of viable viruses were observed by plaque assay. The 5 % levulinic acid plus 2 % SDS sanitizer provided the greatest level of influenza A H3N2 virus inactivation (2.23 log PFU), and differences in virus inactivation were observed for the various levulinic acid plus SDS concentrations tested (P ≤ 0.05). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating influenza A H3N2 virus inactivation on eggshells using a novel levulinic acid plus SDS sanitizer. The sanitizer may be useful for reducing egg contamination and preventing the spread of avian influenza virus to humans.Food and Environmental Virology 10/2013; · 2.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Scallop shell powder produced by calcination process - the average diameter of the powder particles being 20 µm (SSP) - was further ground into nano-sized particles, with average diameter of 500 nm, here designated CaO-Nano. Solution of CaO-Nano could inactivate avian influenza virus within 5 sec, whereas the solution of SSP could not even after 1 hr incubation. CaO-Nano solution could also inactivate Newcastle disease virus and goose parvovirus within 5 sec and 30 sec, respectively. The virus-inactivating capacity (neutralizing index: NI>3) of the solution was not reduced by the presence of 20% fetal bovine serum. CaO-Nano solution seems to be a good candidate of materials for enhancement of biosecurity in farms.Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 05/2014; · 0.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lead acetate (PbA) is one of the major environmental contaminants with grave toxicological consequences both in the developing and developed countries. The liver and erythrocyte antioxidant status and markers of oxidative were assessed. Exposure of rats to PbA led to significant decline (p<0.05) in hepatic and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and reduced glutathione (GSH) content. Similarly, malondialdehyde (MDA) and H2O2 concentrations were significantly (p<0.05) elevated. Histopathology and immunohistology of liver of rats exposed to PbA showed focal areas of necrosis and COX-2 expression after 6 weeks of PbA withdrawal. Taken together, hepatic and erythrocytes antioxidant defence system failed to recover after withdrawal of the exposed PbA for the period of the study. In conclusion, experimental animals exposed to PbA did not recover from hepatotoxicity and disruption of erythrocyte antioxidant defence system via free radical generation and oxidative stress.Environmental toxicology and pharmacology. 03/2014; 37(3):1202-1211.