Inactivation of Avian Influenza Virus Using Common Detergents and Chemicals

Department of Bioresources Engineering, University of Delaware, 264 Townsend Hall, Newark, DE 19716, USA.
Avian Diseases (Impact Factor: 1.24). 04/2008; 52(1):118-23. DOI: 10.1637/8055-070907-Reg
Source: PubMed


Six disinfectant chemicals were tested individually for effectiveness against low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) A/H7N2/Chick/MinhMa/04. The tested agents included acetic acid (C2H4O2), citric acid (C6H8O7), calcium hypochlorite (Ca(ClO)2), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), a powdered laundry detergent with peroxygen (bleach), and a commercially available iodine/acid disinfectant. Four of the six chemicals, including acetic acid (5%), citric acid (1% and 3%), calcium hypochlorite (750 ppm), and sodium hypochlorite (750 ppm) effectively inactivated LPAIV on hard and nonporous surfaces. The conventional laundry detergent was tested at multiple concentrations and found to be suitable for inactivating LPAIV on hard and nonporous surfaces at 6 g/L. Only citric acid and commercially available iodine/acid disinfectant were found to be effective at inactivating LPAIV on both porous and nonporous surfaces.

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Available from: Robert Alphin, Sep 03, 2015
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    • "Chlorine-based surface disinfectants are routinely used and are effective against many viruses, including influenza A virus (Lombardi et al. 2008). 750 ppm concentration of sodium hypochlorite is required for a 3 log PFU inactivation of influenza A virus within 10 min (Lombardi et al. 2008). For a variety of settings where chlorine demand cannot be controlled or high chlorine concentrations cannot be used, for this reason alternative sanitizers are needed. "
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    ABSTRACT: Influenza A virus poses a major public health concern and is associated with annual epidemics and occasional pandemics. Influenza A H3N2 viruses, which are an important cause of human influenza, can infect birds and mammals. Contaminated undercooked poultry products including eggs with avian influenza virus constitute a possible risk of transmission to humans. In this study, a novel levulinic acid plus sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) sanitizer was evaluated for eggshell decontamination. Influenza A H3N2 virus-inoculated chicken eggshells were treated with a 5 % levulinic acid plus 2 % SDS, 2 % levulinic acid plus 1 % SDS, and 0.5 % levulinic acid plus 0.5 % SDS liquid solution for 1 min. Log reductions of viable viruses were observed by plaque assay. The 5 % levulinic acid plus 2 % SDS sanitizer provided the greatest level of influenza A H3N2 virus inactivation (2.23 log PFU), and differences in virus inactivation were observed for the various levulinic acid plus SDS concentrations tested (P ≤ 0.05). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating influenza A H3N2 virus inactivation on eggshells using a novel levulinic acid plus SDS sanitizer. The sanitizer may be useful for reducing egg contamination and preventing the spread of avian influenza virus to humans.
    Food and Environmental Virology 10/2013; 5(4). DOI:10.1007/s12560-013-9129-x · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    • "Malt vinegar (4–8% acetic acid) was effective down to a dilution of 10%. Previously 5% acetic acid has been demonstrated to be effective at inactivating an A/H7N2 strain of influenza [6] and it has been known for some years that acid-based media cause inactivation and aggregation of HA glycoprotein spikes and virus, by triggering the low pH-dependent conformational change in the HA that normally only occurs in late endosomes. [8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: In the event of an influenza pandemic, the majority of people infected will be nursed at home. It is therefore important to determine simple methods for limiting the spread of the virus within the home. The purpose of this work was to test a representative range of common household cleaning agents for their effectiveness at killing or reducing the viability of influenza A virus. Plaque assays provided a robust and reproducible method for determining virus viability after disinfection, while a National Standard influenza virus RT-PCR assay (VSOP 25, was adapted to detect viral genome, and a British Standard (BS:EN 14476:2005) was modified to determine virus killing. Active ingredients in a number of the cleaning agents, wipes, and tissues tested were able to rapidly render influenza virus nonviable, as determined by plaque assay. Commercially available wipes with a claimed antiviral or antibacterial effect killed or reduced virus infectivity, while nonmicrobiocidal wipes and those containing only low concentrations (<5%) of surfactants showed lower anti-influenza activity. Importantly, however, our findings indicate that it is possible to use common, low-technology agents such as 1% bleach, 10% malt vinegar, or 0.01% washing-up liquid to rapidly and completely inactivate influenza virus. Thus, in the context of the ongoing pandemic, and especially in low-resource settings, the public does not need to source specialized cleaning products, but can rapidly disinfect potentially contaminated surfaces with agents readily available in most homes.
    PLoS ONE 02/2010; 5(2):e8987. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0008987 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To control the spread of avian flu (influenza) and other viruses of concern among commercial flocks, it is essential that proper disinfection procedures be developed along with methods for assessing their performance. Such methods must be rapid and inexpensive. Coliphages were used as indicators to demonstrate the efficacy of quaternary ammonium compounds and chlorine bleach for the inactivation of viruses in chicken cages. The concentration of indigenous coliphages in chicken litter was found to be 104–107 per gram and from 0 to 8,500 per 100cm2 of floor surface. To assess the effectiveness of the disinfectants, floor samples were collected pre and post disinfection. These results indicated that chlorine bleach was more effective than quaternary ammonium compounds in reducing the amount of indigenous coliphages. To obtain better quantitative data, MS-2 coliphage was sprayed onto cage floors, left overnight to dry, and then the surfaces disinfected. Similar results were obtained with both indigenous coliphages and MS-2. There appears to be no significant difference in coliphage reduction by increasing the contact time from 10 to 30min. To ensure at least a 99.9% reduction of virus at least 236ml of household bleach per 3.78l should be used.
    Food and Environmental Virology 12/2009; 1(3):155-160. DOI:10.1007/s12560-009-9022-9 · 2.36 Impact Factor
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