Article

Cytomorphology and Molecular Characterization of CLTC-ALK Rearrangement in 2 Cases of ALK-Positive Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma with Extensive Bone Marrow Involvement

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Genetics, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
The Korean Journal of Laboratory Medicine (Impact Factor: 1.31). 05/2008; 28(2):89-94. DOI: 10.3343/kjlm.2008.28.2.89
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Aanaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an unusual disease entity first reported in 1997 as DLBCL with expression of full-length ALK protein. The World Health Organization classification enlists the disease as a rare variant of DLBCL. Herein we describe two cases of ALK-positive DLBCL with cytomorphologic and molecular characteristics for the first time in Korea. The patients were 35-yr-old and 24-yr-old male patients. Immunohistochemical studies on the lymph nodes revealed large sized neoplastic cells with plasmablastic differentiation, which were negative for CD30 and positive for ALK with the characteristic granular staining in the cytoplasmic region. Extensive involvement of bone marrow was observed in both cases showing large, extremely atypical cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and molecular studies on the bone marrow aspirate specimens led to the detection of a clathrin (CLTC)/ALK rearrangement. Despite aggressive chemotherapy, the patients died 15 and 17 months after the diagnosis, indicating poor prognosis of the disease entity. This is the first report demonstrating the cytomorphologic findings of ALK-positive DLBCL cells on bone marrow aspirates.

0 Followers
 · 
59 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (ALK-DLBCL) is a rare lymphoma with several clinicopathological differences from ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). The latest WHO classification of lymphomas recognizes ALK-DLBCL as a separate entity. A comprehensive comparison was made between the clinical and pathological features of the 4 cases reported and those found in an extensive literature search using MEDLINE through December 2008. In our series, three cases were adults and one was pediatric. Two cases had primary extranodal disease (multifocal bone and right nasal fossa). Stages were I (n = 1), II (n = 1), III (n = 1) and IV (n = 1). Two cases had increased LDH levels and three reported B symptoms. IPI scores were 0 (n = 1), 2 (n = 2) and 3 (n = 1). All cases exhibited plasmablastic morphology. By immunohistochemistry, cases were positive for cytoplasmic ALK, MUM1, CD45, and EMA; they marked negative for CD3, CD30 and CD20. Studies for EBV and HHV-8 were negative. The survival for the patients with stage I, II, III and IV were 13, 62, 72 and 11 months, respectively. ALK-DLBCL is a distinct variant of DLBCL with plasmacytic differentiation, which is characterized by a bimodal age incidence curve, primarily nodal involvement, plasmablastic morphology, lack of expression of CD20, aggressive behavior and poor response to standard therapies, although some cases can have prolonged survival as the cases reported in this study. ALK-DLBCL does not seem associated to immunosuppression or the presence of EBV or HHV8. Further prospective studies are needed to optimize therapies for this entity.
    Journal of Hematology & Oncology 03/2009; 2:11. DOI:10.1186/1756-8722-2-11 · 4.93 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with plasmablastic features associated with t(2;17)(p23;q23) and characteristic granular cytoplasmic anaplastic lymphoma kinase-1 (ALK1) protein expression is a rare lymphoma subtype. Nodal and extranodal involvement has been reported. Our case is a 32-year-old man with right cervical adenopathy. Lymph node biopsy showed large atypical cells with prominent plasmablastic differentiation, abundant amphophilic cytoplasm, and prominent central nucleoli. Paraffin immunohistochemistry showed finely granular cytoplasmic ALK1 expression, positive CD138, IgA, p63 (VS38), focal positive epithelial membrane antigen and CD4, and lambda light chain restriction whereas negative CD20 and CD30 staining. While reports show detection of the unique CLTC-ALK fusion by either reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction or fluorescence in situ hybridization, our case represents the second case in the literature to detect the t(2;17)(p23;q23) translocation by multiplex karyotyping (multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization) and the usefulness of this technique to detect hidden translocations not seen by G-banding. An add(2)(p23) was also seen not previously reported. Differential diagnoses of neoplasms with plasmablastic differentiation and a comprehensive molecular/cytogenetic literature review of ALK+DLBCL is discussed.
    Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology: AIMM / official publication of the Society for Applied Immunohistochemistry 04/2009; 17(2):172-7. DOI:10.1097/PAI.0b013e31818629a8 · 2.06 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: RTKs (receptor tyrosine kinases) play important roles in cellular proliferation and differentiation. In addition, RTKs reveal oncogenic potential when their kinase activities are constitutively enhanced by point mutation, amplification or rearrangement of the corresponding genes. The ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase) RTK was originally identified as a member of the insulin receptor subfamily of RTKs that acquires transforming capability when truncated and fused to NPM (nucleophosmin) in the t(2;5) chromosomal rearrangement associated with ALCL (anaplastic large cell lymphoma). To date, many chromosomal rearrangements leading to enhanced ALK activity have been described and are implicated in a number of cancer types. Recent reports of the EML4 (echinoderm microtubule-associated protein like 4)-ALK oncoprotein in NSCLC (non-small cell lung cancer), together with the identification of activating point mutations in neuroblastoma, have highlighted ALK as a significant player and target for drug development in cancer. In the present review we address the role of ALK in development and disease and discuss implications for the future.
    Biochemical Journal 07/2009; 420(3):345-61. DOI:10.1042/BJ20090387 · 4.78 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
0 Downloads
Available from