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Ocean acidification may increase calcification, but at a cost. Proc Roy Soc Lond B

Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, West Hoe, Plymouth PL1 3DH, UK.
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (Impact Factor: 5.29). 09/2008; 275(1644):1767-73. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2008.0343
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Ocean acidification is the lowering of pH in the oceans as a result of increasing uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is entering the oceans at a greater rate than ever before, reducing the ocean's natural buffering capacity and lowering pH. Previous work on the biological consequences of ocean acidification has suggested that calcification and metabolic processes are compromised in acidified seawater. By contrast, here we show, using the ophiuroid brittlestar Amphiura filiformis as a model calcifying organism, that some organisms can increase the rates of many of their biological processes (in this case, metabolism and the ability to calcify to compensate for increased seawater acidity). However, this upregulation of metabolism and calcification, potentially ameliorating some of the effects of increased acidity comes at a substantial cost (muscle wastage) and is therefore unlikely to be sustainable in the long term.

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Available from: Hannah Louise Wood, Aug 21, 2015
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    • "Ideally, this added realism would not be sacrificed in an attempt to increase the numbers of experimental units, which further highlights the complexities faced by future ocean acidification research. A large number of studies have found that ocean acidification will likely negatively impact the calcification or growth of calcifying invertebrates, coccolithophores, calcifying macroalgae, and corals (Riebesell et al., 2000; Gazeau et al., 2007; Anthony et al., 2008; Wood et al., 2008; Byrne et al., 2010), and influence the behavioural traits of invertebrates and fish (Munday et al., 2009; Appelhans et al., 2012; Nilsson et al., 2012). Subsequent shifts in ecosystem structure and function are likely to occur due to the direct biological effects on many ecologically important species (Hall-Spencer et al., 2008; Fabricius et al., 2011; Kroeker et al., 2013a). "
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    ABSTRACT: Ocean acidification has been identified as a risk to marine ecosystems, and substantial scientific effort has been expended on investigating its effects, mostly in laboratory manipulation experiments. However, performing these manipulations correctly can be logistically difficult, and correctly designing experiments is complex, in part because of the rigorous requirements for manipulating and monitoring seawater carbonate chemistry. To assess the use of appropriate experimental design in ocean acidification research, 465 studies published between 1993 and 2014 were surveyed, focusing on the methods used to replicate experimental units. The proportion of studies that had interdependent or non-randomly interspersed treatment replicates, or did not report sufficient methodological details was 95%. Furthermore, 21% of studies did not provide any details of experimental design, 17% of studies otherwise segregated all the replicates for one treatment in one space, 15% of studies replicatedCO2 treatments in away that made replicates more interdependent within treatments than between treatments, and 13% of studies did not report if replicates of all treatments were randomly interspersed. As a consequence, the number of experimental units used per treatment in studies was low (mean ~ 2.0). In a comparable analysis, there was a significant decrease in the number of published studies that employed inappropriate chemical methods of manipulating seawater (i.e. acid–base only additions) from 21 to 3%, following the release of the “Guide to best practices for ocean acidification research and data reporting” in 2010; however, no such increase in the use of appropriate replication and experimental design was observed after 2010. We provide guidelines on how to design ocean acidification laboratory experiments that incorporate the rigorous requirements for monitoring and measuring carbonate chemistry with a level of replication that increases the chances of accurate detection of biological responses to ocean acidification.
    ICES Journal of Marine Science 07/2015; DOI:10.1093/icesjms/fsv118. · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    • "Some organisms, however , may be able to regulate their metabolism and calcification to compensate for increased seawater acidity, but at a substantial energetic cost (Wood et al. 2008). Therefore, this regulation is unlikely to be sustainable in the long term and may reduce energy for other important metabolic processes of calcifying organisms (Wood et al. 2008; Kroeker et al. 2013). Ocean acidification also positively or negatively affects reproduction, behavior or photosynthesis of a range of organisms, while effects are overall negative for calcifiers (Gattuso and Hansson 2011; Kroeker et al. 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: From April 2011 to January 2012, seasonal variation of the aragonite saturation state (Ωar) was observed for the first time in Tokyo Bay, in order to understand the current state of ocean acidification in a highly eutrophicated bay in Japan. Ωar in the bay ranged between 1.55 and 5.12, much greater than observed in offshore waters. At the surface, Ωar was high during summer as a result of photosynthesis with some conflicting effect of freshwater input. At the bottom, Ωar was low during summer due to remineralization of organic matter. Based on an assumption that our observations represent current conditions in Tokyo Bay, it is estimated that the emission of anthropogenic CO2 has already decreased Ωar by 0.6 since the preindustrial period and will further decrease by 1.0–1.6 by the end of this century if emission of CO2 is continued at a high level [representative concentration pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario]. With other conditions remaining the same, bottom waters of the bay will reach seasonal aragonite undersaturation by 2060–2070. However, because coastal regions have a large interannual variability, we need further observations to evaluate our estimations and future predictions presented here. Nevertheless, it should be safe to say that the larger seasonal variation in Ω causes the Tokyo Bay to reach aragonite undersaturation earlier than offshore regions and such conditions have negative consequences on the variety of calcifying organisms living in Tokyo Bay. Ocean acidification could thus give an additional stress to the ecosystem of the bay, which is now suffering from eutrophication and hypoxia.
    Journal of Oceanography 06/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10872-015-0302-8 · 1.46 Impact Factor
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    • "In calcifying organisms, the lower carbonate saturation states which result from increased seawater CO 2 concentrations will significantly reduce an organism's ability to support this energetically expensive physiological process (Wood et al., 2008). The energetic cost of maintaining calcification has a further impact on other key processes such as growth and reproduction (Findlay et al., 2011; Burdett et al., 2012; Ragazzola et al., 2012; McCoy and Ragazzola, 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: Ocean acidification, the result of increased dissolution of carbon dioxide (CO2) in seawater, is a leading subject of current research. The effects of acidification on non-calcifying macroalgae are, however, still unclear. The current study reports two 1-month studies using two different macroalgae, the red alga Palmaria palmata (Rhodophyta) and the kelp Saccharina latissima (Phaeophyta), exposed to control (pHNBS = ∼8.04) and increased (pHNBS = ∼7.82) levels of CO2-induced seawater acidification. The impacts of both increased acidification and time of exposure on net primary production (NPP), respiration (R), dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP) concentrations, and algal growth have been assessed. In P. palmata, although NPP significantly increased during the testing period, it significantly decreased with acidification, whereas R showed a significant decrease with acidification only. S. latissima significantly increased NPP with acidification but not with time, and significantly increased R with both acidification and time, suggesting a concomitant increase in gross primary production. The DMSP concentrations of both species remained unchanged by either acidification or through time during the experimental period. In contrast, algal growth differed markedly between the two experiments, in that P. palmata showed very little growth throughout the experiment, while S. latissima showed substantial growth during the course of the study, with the latter showing a significant difference between the acidified and control treatments. These two experiments suggest that the study species used here were resistant to a short-term exposure to ocean acidification, with some of the differences seen between species possibly linked to different nutrient concentrations between the experiments.
    ICES Journal of Marine Science 05/2015; DOI:10.1093/icesjms/fsv081 · 2.53 Impact Factor
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