Teen driver crash risk and associations with smoking and drowsy driving
ABSTRACT Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for young people in the United States. The goal of this study was to identify risk factor profiles of teen and young adult drivers involved in crashes. General demographic and behavioral as well as driving-related factors were considered. Analysis of a nationally representative telephone survey of U.S. young drivers ages 14 to 22 (N=900) conducted in 2005 was restricted to 506 licensed drivers (learners excluded). Statistically significant univariate associations between factors of interest and the primary outcome, crash involvement (ever) as a driver, were identified and included within a multivariate logistic regression model, controlling for potential demographic confounders. Aside from length of licensure, only driving alone while drowsy and being a current smoker were associated with having been in a crash. Gaining a better understanding of these behaviors could enhance the development of more customized interventions for new drivers.
01/2014; 3(2):107. DOI:10.1504/IJHFE.2014.067804
- "Many different populations of drivers are potentially at risk for fatigue-related crashes. These include: young males who are more likely to be sleep deprived and/or drive at night (Pack et al., 1995); young drivers driving alone while drowsy (Hutchens et al., 2008); commercial vehicle (e.g., truck) operators who typically spend many hours on the road (Wylie et al., 1996); individuals with sleep apnoea (Tippin et al., 2009); and older adults with perceptual (Owsley et al., 1998) or attention deficits (Ball et al., 1988; Parasuraman and Nestor, 1991), or those taking prescription medications that may make them more susceptible to the effects of fatigue (Cooper et al., 2011). Fatigue impairs both driving performance as well as cognitive functioning, and thus impairs the ability of drivers to judge whether it is safe to continue driving (Brown, 1997). "
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- "This trait has been shown to correlate with risky health behaviours (op. cit.) and to be associated with crash involvement in young drivers . A four item scale developed by Kohn and Schooler [ in ] will be used to measure 'Normlessness'. "
ABSTRACT: Regular cycling has been shown to improve health and has a role in tackling the threats posed by obesity and inactivity. Cycle collisions, particularly those involving motorised vehicles, can lead to significant mortality and morbidity and are currently a barrier to wider uptake of cycling. There is evidence that the conspicuity of cyclists is a factor in many injury collisions. Low-cost, easy to use retro-reflective and fluorescent clothing and accessories ('conspicuity aids') are available. Their effectiveness in reducing cycling collisions is unknown. The study is designed to investigate the relationship between the use of conspicuity aids and risk of collision or evasion crashes for utility and commuter cyclists in the UK. A matched case-control study is proposed. Cases are adult commuter and utility cyclists involved in a crash resulting from a collision or attempted evasion of a collision with another road user recruited at a UK emergency department. Controls are commuter and utility cyclists matched by journey purpose, time and day of travel and geographical area recruited at public and private cycle parking sites. Data on the use of conspicuity aids, crash circumstances, demographics, cycling experience, safety equipment use, journey characteristics and route will be collected using self-completed questionnaires and maps. Conditional logistic regression will be used to calculate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of the risk of a crash when using any item of fluorescent or reflective clothing or equipment. This study will provide information on the effectiveness of conspicuity aids in reducing the risk of injury to cyclists resulting from crashes involving other road users.BMC Public Health 01/2010; 10(1):39. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-10-39 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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- "Research on risky driving behaviours has found links between antisocial behaviour, substance abuse, poor academic achievement, other problem behaviours and crash risk (Vassallo et al., 2007; Vassallo et al., 2008; Møller et al., 2008, Bina et al., 2006, Hutchens et al., 2008). It is likely that these areas are related and that research findings in these areas may also apply to risky road safety behaviours. "
ABSTRACT: Parents have long been a target of road safety organisations to teach their young children safe road crossing behaviours and help their learner drivers to increase their driving experience. Research is now suggesting that parents may also have a role to play in preventing or reducing the risky behaviours of their children, as pedestrians, passengers and young drivers. Parental role modelling, parental monitoring and parental control have all been identified as potentially playing an important role in the safety of children and young people. The TAC, RACV and VicRoads recognise the potential of parental influences on risky driving behaviour and as such are focussing on developing and implementing two strategies to target parents. The first strategy will focus on targeting parents with road safety specific messages. The overall aim of this strategy is to encourage and educate parents to have a greater influence on the road safety behaviour of their children. Some aspects of this strategy are already in place. Other aspects are new and will complement existing materials. The second strategy will focus on improving general parenting skills. The overall aim of the strategy is to encourage and educate parents at a preventative level, to adopt risk reduction strategies to reduce risk taking behaviour among children and young people.