Teen driver crash risk and associations with smoking and drowsy driving
ABSTRACT Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for young people in the United States. The goal of this study was to identify risk factor profiles of teen and young adult drivers involved in crashes. General demographic and behavioral as well as driving-related factors were considered. Analysis of a nationally representative telephone survey of U.S. young drivers ages 14 to 22 (N=900) conducted in 2005 was restricted to 506 licensed drivers (learners excluded). Statistically significant univariate associations between factors of interest and the primary outcome, crash involvement (ever) as a driver, were identified and included within a multivariate logistic regression model, controlling for potential demographic confounders. Aside from length of licensure, only driving alone while drowsy and being a current smoker were associated with having been in a crash. Gaining a better understanding of these behaviors could enhance the development of more customized interventions for new drivers.
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ABSTRACT: Parents have long been a target of road safety organisations to teach their young children safe road crossing behaviours and help their learner drivers to increase their driving experience. Research is now suggesting that parents may also have a role to play in preventing or reducing the risky behaviours of their children, as pedestrians, passengers and young drivers. Parental role modelling, parental monitoring and parental control have all been identified as potentially playing an important role in the safety of children and young people. The TAC, RACV and VicRoads recognise the potential of parental influences on risky driving behaviour and as such are focussing on developing and implementing two strategies to target parents. The first strategy will focus on targeting parents with road safety specific messages. The overall aim of this strategy is to encourage and educate parents to have a greater influence on the road safety behaviour of their children. Some aspects of this strategy are already in place. Other aspects are new and will complement existing materials. The second strategy will focus on improving general parenting skills. The overall aim of the strategy is to encourage and educate parents at a preventative level, to adopt risk reduction strategies to reduce risk taking behaviour among children and young people.
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ABSTRACT: Crash frequency is typically much lower during the night than during the day, but it is well recognized that driving at night has a much higher risk relative to traffic exposure. The timing and magnitude of this increased risk is less well understood. The intent of this study was to identify the temporal position of the nighttime crash peak, and to estimate the odds of crash while driving at each hour of the day. Data included crashes registered in Queensland Transport’s Road Crash Database for the period mid 2000 to mid 2006 (for all crash severity levels), across urban and non-urban geographical areas. Analyses were restricted to passenger vehicles (cars, station wagons, utility vehicles and 4-wheel drives). Crashes where blood alcohol content was greater than zero was recorded were also excluded. Significant age and gender differences were found for a peak in early morning crash risk. Young males had more than six times the odds for crashes resulting in fatality or hospitalization crash at this time of day. The 2-3am peak is consistent with international findings that suggest sleepiness, rather than darkness, as the primary contributor to these crashes.