Prevalence and associations of the metabolic syndrome among patients prescribed clozapine.
ABSTRACT There is increasing concern that the use of second-generation antipsychotic medications in schizophrenia is associated with the development of metabolic syndrome.
This study assessed the prevalence and clinical associations of metabolic syndrome among patients receiving clozapine within the catchment area of a mental health service in the west of Ireland.
A total of 84 patients (96% response rate) taking clozapine were interviewed and thoroughly investigated using physical assessments, comprehensive laboratory testing and review of medical records.
Of the patients, 46.4% taking clozapine fulfilled the criteria for metabolic syndrome. Male gender, high body mass index, high insulin level and receiving a concomitant antipsychotic medication were significantly associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome.
Almost half of the patients receiving clozapine have metabolic syndrome and are consequently at risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Such patients should be closely monitored in order to facilitate interventions, which could alleviate the adverse health consequences of this syndrome.
- SourceAvailable from: Robert P Mcmahon[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in schizophrenia is more frequent than in the general population. Whether second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) increase risk of CVD morbidity and mortality has yet to be determined. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using an administrative database to identify patients with DSM-III- or DSM-IV-diagnosed schizophrenia, treated in Maryland, who started clozapine treatment (n = 1,084) or were never treated with clozapine (initiated on risperidone; n = 602) between 1994 and 2000. Deaths between 1994 and 2004 were identified by the Social Security Death Index, and death records were obtained. During the 6- to 10-year follow-up period, there were 136 deaths, of which 43 were attributed to CVD. Cardiovascular disease mortality in patients aged younger than 55 years at medication start was approximately 1.1% (clozapine, 1.1%; risperidone, 1.0%) in both groups at 5 years and 2.7% (clozapine) and 2.8% (risperidone) at 10 years (chi(2)(1) = 0.12, P = .73). Patients who started treatment at ages >or= 55 years had CVD mortality of 8.5% (clozapine) and 3.6% (risperidone) at 5 years and 16.0% (clozapine) and 5.7% (risperidone) at 10 years (chi(2)(1) = 2.13, P = .144). In a Cox regression model, patients aged >or= 55 years were at greater risk of mortality than younger patients (hazard ratio = 4.6, P < .001); whites were at greater risk than nonwhites (HR = 2.1, P = .046); however, SGA treatment (HR = 1.2; 95% CI, 0.6-2.4; P = .61) and sex (HR = 0.9, P = .69) were not statistically significant predictors of CVD, nor was there a significant age x clozapine interaction (chi(2)(1) = 1.52, P = .22). Age-, race-, and gender-adjusted standardized mortality ratios were significantly elevated (clozapine, 4.70; 95% CI, 3.19-6.67; risperidone, 2.88; 95% CI, 1.38-5.30) compared to year 2000 rates for the Maryland general population but did not differ by antipsychotic group (chi(2)(1) = 1.42, P = .23). The risk of CVD mortality in schizophrenia does not differ between clozapine and risperidone in adults despite known differences in risk profiles for weight gain and metabolic side effects. However, we cannot rule out an increased risk of CVD mortality among those starting treatment at ages 55 years or older.The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 03/2010; 71(3):304-11. · 5.81 Impact Factor
- Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses 01/2009; 3(2):87-96.
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ABSTRACT: Data on the long-term metabolic side-effects associated with antipsychotics are scarce. Prospective longitudinal studies in medication-naive patients with a first episode of psychosis are a valuable source of information as they provide an assessment prior to the antipsychotic exposure and minimize the effect of potential confounding factors. The aim of this study was to assess the course of weight gain and the incidence of metabolic abnormalities during the first 3 yr of antipsychotic treatment. Data were collected from a cohort of 170 first-episode psychosis patients. They were randomly assigned to haloperidol (32%); olanzapine (32%) and risperidone (36%). The dose used was flexible. The initial antipsychotic treatment was changed when required, based on clinical response and tolerability. The results showed that the mean weight gain at 3 yr was 12.1 kg (s.d. = 10.7). It appeared to increase rapidly during the first year (85% of the total mean weight gain) and then stabilized gradually over time. Total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels followed a similar trajectory with a significant increase only during the first year. No significant changes were detected in the mean values of glycaemic parameters. Two patients with a family history of diabetes developed diabetes type II. At short-term the factors positively associated with weight gain were lower body mass index, male gender and olanzapine treatment. At long-term, functional status and clinical response were the main predictors. The results of our study indicate that the first year of antipsychotic treatment is a critical period for weight gain and metabolic changes. Identification of weight gain patterns may help to inform studies that aim to prevent or mitigate the metabolic adverse events associated with antipsychotic therapy.The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 10/2013; · 5.64 Impact Factor