Prevalence and associations of the metabolic syndrome among patients prescribed clozapine.
ABSTRACT There is increasing concern that the use of second-generation antipsychotic medications in schizophrenia is associated with the development of metabolic syndrome.
This study assessed the prevalence and clinical associations of metabolic syndrome among patients receiving clozapine within the catchment area of a mental health service in the west of Ireland.
A total of 84 patients (96% response rate) taking clozapine were interviewed and thoroughly investigated using physical assessments, comprehensive laboratory testing and review of medical records.
Of the patients, 46.4% taking clozapine fulfilled the criteria for metabolic syndrome. Male gender, high body mass index, high insulin level and receiving a concomitant antipsychotic medication were significantly associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome.
Almost half of the patients receiving clozapine have metabolic syndrome and are consequently at risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Such patients should be closely monitored in order to facilitate interventions, which could alleviate the adverse health consequences of this syndrome.
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ABSTRACT: The authors conducted a review and meta-analysis of studies that compared the efficacy and tolerability of typical and second-generation antipsychotics for patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. A systematic search revealed 12 controlled studies (involving 1,916 independent patients), which were included in the review. For the seven studies that compared clozapine to a typical antipsychotic, a meta-analysis was performed to examine clozapine's effects on overall psychopathology, response rate, extrapyramidal symptoms, and tardive dyskinesia. The meta-analysis confirmed that treatment-resistant schizophrenic patients have more favorable outcomes when treated with clozapine rather than a typical antipsychotic, as reflected by Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale total score, categorical response rate, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms score, Simpson-Angus Rating Scale score, and compliance rate. Clozapine also conferred benefits on the sickest treatment-resistant schizophrenic patients. Patients treated with olanzapine also had more favorable outcomes with regard to categorical response and compliance rates. In the aggregate, the results of a meta-analysis indicated that clozapine exhibits superiority over typical antipsychotics in terms of both efficacy (as measured by improvement in overall psychopathology) and safety (in terms of reduced extrapyramidal side effects). However, the magnitude of the clozapine treatment effect was not consistently robust. Efficacy data for other second-generation antipsychotics in the treatment of patients with refractory schizophrenia were inconclusive. There is, therefore, a growing need to consider new and different treatment strategies, whether they be adjunctive or monotherapeutic, for schizophrenia that continues to be resistant or only partially responsive to treatment.American Journal of Psychiatry 05/2001; 158(4):518-26. · 14.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This paper presents a structured review of the published information on the mortality of schizophrenia. A meta-analysis of the literature. Schizophrenia has a significantly increased mortality from natural and unnatural causes. Twenty-eight percent of the excess mortality is attributable to suicide and 12% to accidents. The rest of the excess mortality is from the same broad range of conditions which cause deaths in the general population. Further interpretation is hampered by confounding variables, wide confidence intervals and reservations about generalising from individual cohorts. The available evidence suggests that schizophrenia is associated with a large increased mortality from suicide and a moderate increased mortality from natural causes. A number of possible interventions have been identified, but we do not yet have reliable means of detecting any changes in mortality which might result.The British Journal of Psychiatry 01/1998; 171:502-8. · 6.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The metabolic syndrome, a concurrence of disturbed glucose and insulin metabolism, overweight and abdominal fat distribution, mild dyslipidemia, and hypertension, is associated with subsequent development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite its high prevalence, little is known of the prospective association of the metabolic syndrome with cardiovascular and overall mortality. To assess the association of the metabolic syndrome with cardiovascular and overall mortality using recently proposed definitions and factor analysis. The Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study, a population-based, prospective cohort study of 1209 Finnish men aged 42 to 60 years at baseline (1984-1989) who were initially without CVD, cancer, or diabetes. Follow-up continued through December 1998. Death due to coronary heart disease (CHD), CVD, and any cause among men with vs without the metabolic syndrome, using 4 definitions based on the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and the World Health Organization (WHO). The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome ranged from 8.8% to 14.3%, depending on the definition. There were 109 deaths during the approximately 11.4-year follow-up, of which 46 and 27 were due to CVD and CHD, respectively. Men with the metabolic syndrome as defined by the NCEP were 2.9 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-7.2) to 4.2 (95% CI, 1.6-10.8) times more likely and, as defined by the WHO, 2.9 (95% CI, 1.2-6.8) to 3.3 (95% CI, 1.4-7.7) times more likely to die of CHD after adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors. The metabolic syndrome as defined by the WHO was associated with 2.6 (95% CI, 1.4-5.1) to 3.0 (95% CI, 1.5-5.7) times higher CVD mortality and 1.9 (95% CI, 1.2-3.0) to 2.1 (95% CI, 1.3-3.3) times higher all-cause mortality. The NCEP definition less consistently predicted CVD and all-cause mortality. Factor analysis using 13 variables associated with metabolic or cardiovascular risk yielded a metabolic syndrome factor that explained 18% of total variance. Men with loadings on the metabolic factor in the highest quarter were 3.6 (95% CI, 1.7-7.9), 3.2 (95% CI, 1.7-5.8), and 2.3 (95% CI, 1.5-3.4) times more likely to die of CHD, CVD, and any cause, respectively. Cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality are increased in men with the metabolic syndrome, even in the absence of baseline CVD and diabetes. Early identification, treatment, and prevention of the metabolic syndrome present a major challenge for health care professionals facing an epidemic of overweight and sedentary lifestyle.JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 01/2003; 288(21):2709-16. · 29.98 Impact Factor