Prevalence and associations of the metabolic syndrome among patients prescribed clozapine
Department of Psychiatry, Clinical Science Institute, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland. Irish Journal of Medical Science
(Impact Factor: 0.83).
06/2008; 177(3):205-10. DOI: 10.1007/s11845-008-0156-9
There is increasing concern that the use of second-generation antipsychotic medications in schizophrenia is associated with the development of metabolic syndrome.
This study assessed the prevalence and clinical associations of metabolic syndrome among patients receiving clozapine within the catchment area of a mental health service in the west of Ireland.
A total of 84 patients (96% response rate) taking clozapine were interviewed and thoroughly investigated using physical assessments, comprehensive laboratory testing and review of medical records.
Of the patients, 46.4% taking clozapine fulfilled the criteria for metabolic syndrome. Male gender, high body mass index, high insulin level and receiving a concomitant antipsychotic medication were significantly associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome.
Almost half of the patients receiving clozapine have metabolic syndrome and are consequently at risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Such patients should be closely monitored in order to facilitate interventions, which could alleviate the adverse health consequences of this syndrome.
Available from: Scott Lamont
- "In studies specifically related to patients prescribed clozapine treatment, Ahmed et al. (2008) found that 39 (46.4%) of 84 patients in a study in Ireland met the "
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ABSTRACT: The high prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in people with a mental illness has been reported recently in the literature. Gaps have emerged in the widespread use of systematic screening methods that identify this collection of critical risk factors for cardiac and metabolic disorders in people with severe mental illness. A sample (n = 103) of consumers with severe mental illness was screened for MetS using the Metabolic Syndrome Screening Tool and compared to a sample (n = 72) of consumers who were not receiving a systematic approach to screening for MetS. The results demonstrated ad hoc screening of consumers for MetS in the comparison group, potentially leaving patients at risk of cardiac and metabolic disorders being untreated. Mental health nurses are well placed to show leadership in the screening, treatment, and ongoing management of MetS in people with severe mental illness. A potential new speciality role entitled the 'cardiometabolic mental health nurse' is proposed as a means leading to improved outcomes for consumers who have both the complication of physical health problems and a severe mental illness.
International journal of mental health nursing 05/2009; 18(2):144-50. DOI:10.1111/j.1447-0349.2009.00595.x · 1.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The increased rates of both overweight and obesity reported in severely mentally-ill patients are prevalently due to the use of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs). Hence, the main purpose of this article is to analyze systematically potential patient- and drug-related factors which may increase the risk of weight gain during long-term treatment with such medications. Literature information published in English since 1966 and last updated on 17 January 2009 was identified through different databases and using various combinations of search terms. Searches provided 242 articles, whereas 6 additional references were identified manually. Peer-reviewed articles focusing on the risk of weight gain during SGA-chronic treatment (at least 52 weeks, N = 81) were acquired. Data were extracted from the 39 peer-reviewed articles which investigated factors potentially associated with an increased risk of this event. Evidence-based information suggests that a number of factors, either patient- (age, baseline BMI/bodyweight, recent onset of psychotic episodes, need of concomitant psychotropic medications) or drug-specific (relative receptorial affinity, timing of weight changes plateau, daily dose, iatrogenic concomitant changes in biochemical metabolic parameters) may contribute to increase either rates and/or magnitude of this effect during long-term treatments with specific SGAs. All contributors and their relationship with specific drugs should be taken into consideration when designing a long-term therapy with SGAs. Among the best studied agents (clozapine, olanzapine, and risperidone) of this class, the latter seems to be the most susceptible drug to the amplifying effects of both patient- and drug-related factors on the risk of inducing weight changes during chronic treatments.
Obesity Reviews 06/2009; 10(5):527-42. DOI:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2009.00589.x · 8.00 Impact Factor
Available from: Richard C Josiassen
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ABSTRACT: Objectives: Cross-sectional studies indicate that clozapine is associated with unusually high rates of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in schizophrenia. These studies cannot address the extent to which schizophrenia or other factors are major risks for the MetS, independent of clozapine exposure. The objectives of this study were to longitudinally examine metabolic risk factors before and after clozapine initiation: 1) to determine MetS prevalence rates during first-generation antipsychotic (FGA) and clozapine treatment; 2) to identify metabolic changes contributing to the MetS; and, 3) to evaluate the extent to which prior treatment and subject variables contributed to increased MetS prevalence rates. Methods: Using an archival, follow-forward design, metabolic risk factors were sampled on a quarterly basis from medical records of twenty-five randomly selected inpatients. The sampling period was six years (three years of FGA and three years of clozapine). All subjects had been treated only with FGAs prior to clozapine exposure. Results: During clozapine treatment 16 of 25 (64%) subjects met MetS criteria; however, half (8 of 16) of the subjects already met MetS criteria during FGA treatment. Increased MetS prevalence with clozapine resulted from increases in fasting glucose and triglyceride levels and increased systolic BP. BMI was stable over time. Gender, age of clozapine initiation, and clozapine dose and duration may have contributed to long-term MetS risk. Conclusions: Clozapine-treated patients are at increased risk for the MetS. When observed longitudinally, however, it is clear that a significant proportion of the metabolic risk involves factors other than clozapine exposure alone.
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses 07/2009; 3(2):87-96. DOI:10.3371/CSRP.3.2.3
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