Prevalence and associations of the metabolic syndrome among patients prescribed clozapine.
ABSTRACT There is increasing concern that the use of second-generation antipsychotic medications in schizophrenia is associated with the development of metabolic syndrome.
This study assessed the prevalence and clinical associations of metabolic syndrome among patients receiving clozapine within the catchment area of a mental health service in the west of Ireland.
A total of 84 patients (96% response rate) taking clozapine were interviewed and thoroughly investigated using physical assessments, comprehensive laboratory testing and review of medical records.
Of the patients, 46.4% taking clozapine fulfilled the criteria for metabolic syndrome. Male gender, high body mass index, high insulin level and receiving a concomitant antipsychotic medication were significantly associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome.
Almost half of the patients receiving clozapine have metabolic syndrome and are consequently at risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Such patients should be closely monitored in order to facilitate interventions, which could alleviate the adverse health consequences of this syndrome.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Widely ranging prevalence rates for metabolic syndrome (MetS) in patients taking clozapine have been reported on the basis of various criteria, and most studies have been carried out in non-Asian countries. Therefore, we examined the prevalence of MetS in Korean patients using three commonly applied criteria with two waist-circumference cutoff values. The indirectly standardized prevalence ratio (ISPR) was estimated using data from the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHNES, 2007) to compare the prevalence of MetS in patients with that in the general population. In addition, we also examined whether serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase levels serve as biochemical markers for the identification of MetS. We reviewed the electromedical records of patients with schizophrenia who had taken clozapine as the sole antipsychotic for 3 months or more. The prevalence of MetS ranged from 34.5 to 46.9%, and the ISPR ranged from 2.4 to 2.8, given the three definitions of MetS and the two waist-circumference cutoff points for women. The ISPR for MetS among those aged 18-30 years was the highest and decreased with age in both men and women. After adjusting for age, patients with normal serum ALT levels who were in the top third were significantly more likely to have MetS compared with those who were in the bottom third. Logistic regression analysis showed that serum ALT levels and use of antidepressants were significantly related to the presence of MetS. Korean patients with schizophrenia who were receiving clozapine as the sole antipsychotic showed a high prevalence of MetS. Although we found substantial differences in the prevalence according to criteria, the ISPR indicated significantly higher rates of MetS in this group than in the general population. In the general population, younger patients had a much higher risk for MetS than older patients. Elevated levels of serum ALT that were in the normal range were associated with the presence of MetS, which suggests the possibility of using serum ALT level as an early indicator for MetS in patients treated with clozapine.International clinical psychopharmacology 11/2012; 28(2). DOI:10.1097/YIC.0b013e32835b99bd · 3.10 Impact Factor
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses 07/2009; 3(2):87-96. DOI:10.3371/CSRP.3.2.3
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Data on the long-term metabolic side-effects associated with antipsychotics are scarce. Prospective longitudinal studies in medication-naive patients with a first episode of psychosis are a valuable source of information as they provide an assessment prior to the antipsychotic exposure and minimize the effect of potential confounding factors. The aim of this study was to assess the course of weight gain and the incidence of metabolic abnormalities during the first 3 yr of antipsychotic treatment. Data were collected from a cohort of 170 first-episode psychosis patients. They were randomly assigned to haloperidol (32%); olanzapine (32%) and risperidone (36%). The dose used was flexible. The initial antipsychotic treatment was changed when required, based on clinical response and tolerability. The results showed that the mean weight gain at 3 yr was 12.1 kg (s.d. = 10.7). It appeared to increase rapidly during the first year (85% of the total mean weight gain) and then stabilized gradually over time. Total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels followed a similar trajectory with a significant increase only during the first year. No significant changes were detected in the mean values of glycaemic parameters. Two patients with a family history of diabetes developed diabetes type II. At short-term the factors positively associated with weight gain were lower body mass index, male gender and olanzapine treatment. At long-term, functional status and clinical response were the main predictors. The results of our study indicate that the first year of antipsychotic treatment is a critical period for weight gain and metabolic changes. Identification of weight gain patterns may help to inform studies that aim to prevent or mitigate the metabolic adverse events associated with antipsychotic therapy.The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 10/2013; DOI:10.1017/S1461145713001053 · 5.26 Impact Factor