Anti-Inflammatory Preconditioning by Agonists of Adenosine A1 Receptor
ABSTRACT Adenosine levels rise during inflammation and modulate inflammatory responses by engaging with four different G protein-coupled receptors. It is suggested that adenosine exhibits pro-inflammatory effects through its A(1) receptor (A(1)R), and anti-inflammatory effects through A(2A) receptor (A(2A)R). Therefore, understanding of the mechanisms that govern adenosine receptor regulation may advance treatment of various inflammatory disorders. We previously reported that peak A(1)R expression during leukocyte recruitment, is followed by a peak in A(2A)R during inflammation resolution.
Here, we examined whether A(1)R activation sequentially induces A(2A)R expression and by this reverses inflammation. The effect of adenosine on A(1)R mediated A(2A)R expression was examined in peritoneal macrophages (PMPhi) and primary peritoneal mesothelial cells (PMC) in vitro. Induction of A(2A)R was inhibited by pertussis toxin (PTX) and partly dependent on A(2A)R stimulation. Administration of A(1)R agonists to healthy mice reduced A(1)R expression and induced A(2A)R production in PMC. Mice that were preconditioned with A(1)R agonists 24 hours before E. coli inoculation exhibited decreased TNFalpha and IL-6 sera levels and reduced leukocytes recruitment. Preconditioning was blocked by pretreatment with A(1)R antagonist, as well as, or by late treatment with A(2A)R antagonist, and was absent in A(2A)R(-/-) mice.
Our data suggest that preconditioning by an A(1)R-agonist promotes the resolution of inflammation by inducing the production of A(2A)R. Future implications may include early treatment during inflammatory disorders or pretreatment before anticipated high risk inflammatory events, such as invasive surgery and organ transplantation.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Gad Shaked, Jan 10, 2014
SourceAvailable from: PubMed Central[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cordyceps sinensis, also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm, summer grass) in Chinese, is becoming increasingly popular and important in the public and scientific communities. This study summarizes the chemical constituents and their corresponding pharmacological actions of Cordyceps sinensis. Many bioactive components of Cordyceps sinensis have been extracted including nucleoside, polysaccharide, sterol, protein, amino acid, and polypeptide. In addition, these constituents’ corresponding pharmacological actions were also shown in the study such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumour, antiapoptosis, and immunomodulatory actions. Therefore can use different effects of C. sinensis against different diseases and provide reference for the study of Cordyceps sinensis in the future.Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2015; 2015:1-12. DOI:10.1155/2015/575063 · 2.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background Adenosine is a potent endogenous anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory molecule. Despite its promise, adenosine’s extremely short half-life in blood limits its clinical application. Here, we examined adenosine N1-oxide (ANO), which is found in royal jelly. ANO is an oxidized product of adenosine at the N1 position of the adenine base moiety. We found that it is refractory to adenosine deaminase-mediated conversion to inosine. We further examined the anti-inflammatory activities of ANO in vitro and in vivo. Methods The effect of ANO on pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion was examined in mouse peritoneal macrophages and the human monocytic cell line THP-1, and compared with that of adenosine, synthetic adenosine receptor (AR)-selective agonists and dipotassium glycyrrhizate (GK2). The anti-inflammatory activity of ANO in vivo was examined in an LPS-induced endotoxin shock model in mice. Results ANO inhibited secretion of inflammatory mediators at much lower concentrations than adenosine and GK2 when used with peritoneal macrophages and THP-1 cells that were stimulated by LPS plus IFN-γ. The potent anti-inflammatory activity of ANO could not be solely accounted for by its refractoriness to adenosine deaminase. ANO was superior to the synthetic A1 AR-selective agonist, 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA), A2A AR-selective agonist, 2-[p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino]-5’-N-ethylcarboxamideadenosine hydrochloride (CGS21680), and A3 AR-selective agonist, N6-(3-iodobenzyl)adenosine-5’-N-methyluronamide (IB-MECA), in suppressing the secretion of a broad spectrum of pro-inflammatory cytokines by peritoneal macrophages. The capacities of ANO to inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine production by THP-1 cells were comparable with those of CCPA and IB-MECA. Reflecting its potent anti-inflammatory effects in vitro, intravenous administration of ANO significantly reduced lethality of LPS-induced endotoxin shock. A significant increase in survival rate was also observed by oral administration of ANO. Mechanistic analysis suggested that the up-regulation of the anti-inflammatory transcription factor c-Fos was, at least in part, involved in the ANO-induced suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. Conclusions Our data suggest that ANO, a naturally occurring molecule that is structurally close to adenosine but is functionally more potent, presents potential strategies for the treatment of inflammatory disorders.Journal of Inflammation 01/2015; 12(1). DOI:10.1186/s12950-014-0045-0 · 2.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Adenosine detection in human serum is important because this ribonucleoside has established clinical applications, modulating many physiological processes. Furthermore, a simple and cheap detection method is useful in adenosine production processes. Adenosine can be determined enzymatically using either S-adenosyl-homocysteine hydrolase and 3[H]-adenosine, or adenosine kinase combined with GTP and luciferase, or an amperometric biosensor carrying adenosine deaminase, purine nucleoside phosphorylase and xanthine oxidase. We developed a simple and cheap method relying on a transparent biostrip bearing adenosine deaminase (ADA) and the indicator phenol red (PR), co-immobilized to polyacrylamide, itself chemically adhered to a derivatized glass strip. The ADA-catalyzed conversion of adenosine to inosine and ammonia leads to a local pH alteration, changing the absorbance of PR (from 425 to 567 nm) which is measured optically. The biostrip shows an analytical range 0.05 – 1.5 mM adenosine and is reusable when stored at 4°C. When the biostrip was tested with serum, spiked with adenosine (70 and 100 μM), and filtered for protein and adenosine phosphates depletion, it showed good adenosine recovery. In summary, we show the proof-of-concept that adenosine can be determined reagent-free, at moderate sensitivity on an easy to construct, cheap and reusable biostrip, based on commercially available molecular entities.Biotechnology Journal 01/2015; DOI:10.1002/biot.201400333 · 3.71 Impact Factor