Hepatic erythropoietin gene regulation by GATA-4.
ABSTRACT Erythropoietin production switches from fetal liver to adult kidney during development. GATA transcription factors 2 and 3 could be involved in modulating this switch, because they were shown to negatively regulate erythropoietin gene transcription through a promoter proximal GATA site. Herein, we analyzed the role of several GATA factors in the regulation of the erythropoietin gene in human liver and in hepatoma cells. Although GATA-3 expression in hepatocytes increases during human development, erythropoietin mRNA accumulation is unaltered in mutant mice lacking GATA-3. We found that GATA-2, -3, -4, and -6 are all expressed in human hepatocytes and that GATA-4 exhibits the most prominent Epo promoter binding activity in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of GATA-4 expression by RNA interference leads to a dramatic reduction in Epo gene transcription in Hep3B cells. Moreover, GATA-4 expression is high and limited to hepatocytes in the fetal liver, whereas GATA-4 expression in the adult liver is low and restricted to epithelial cells surrounding the biliary ducts. Thus, GATA-4 is critical for transcription of the Epo gene in hepatocytes and may contribute to the switch in the site of Epo gene expression from the fetal liver to the adult kidney.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: We describe a case of a fever of unknown etiology that was caused by a caseating tubercle granuloma which produced erythropoietin. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an erythropoietin- producing granuloma. CASE PRESENTATION: A 48-year-old Japanese man with a 5-year history of maintenance hemodialysis for diabetic nephropathy presented with an intermittent fever over a few months. During febrile periods he developed erythema nodosum on his legs. Computed tomography showed axillary lymph node enlargement and this was further corroborated by a gallium scan that revealed high gallium uptake in these nodes. A Mantoux test was positive and an interferongamma release assay for tuberculosis diagnosis was also positive. Lymph node tuberculosis was suspected and the patient underwent lymphadenectomy. Histological analysis of the lymph nodes revealed a caseating granuloma that showed positive results on an acid-fast bacteria stain and a Mycobacterium tuberculosis polymerase chain reaction test. After lymphadenectomy, however, the patient's hemoglobin levels rapidly decreased from 144 to 105 g/L, and this was further compounded by a decrease in serum erythropoietin from 223 mIU/mL to 10.7 mIU/mL by postoperative day 21. We suspected the tubercle to be a source of the erythropoietin and this was further confirmed by in situ hybridization. CONCLUSIONS: We report for the first time ectopic erythropoietin production by a tuberculous lymph node. Our observations are substantiated by a postoperative decline in his erythropoietin level and a clinical requirement for erythropoietin treatment.BMC Nephrology 04/2013; 14(1):91. · 1.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hepcidin is an antimicrobial peptide hormone that plays a central role in the metabolism of iron and its expression in the liver can be induced through two major pathways: the inflammatory pathway, mainly via IL-6; and the iron-sensing pathway, mediated by BMP-6. GATA-proteins are group of evolutionary conserved transcriptional regulators that bind to the consensus motif-WGATAR-in the promoter region. In hepatoma cells, GATA-proteins 4 and 6 in conjunction with the co-factor friend of GATA (FOG) were shown to modulate the transcription of HAMP. However, it is unclear as to which of the GATA-proteins drive the expression of HAMP in vivo. In this study, using in vitro and in vivo approaches, we investigated the relevance of GATA and FOG proteins in the expression of hepcidin following treatment with IL-6 and BMP-6. We found that treatment of Huh7 cells with either IL-6 or BMP-6 increased the HAMP promoter activity. The HAMP promoter activity following treatment with IL-6 or BMP-6 was further increased by co-transfection of the promoter with GATA proteins 4 and 6. However, co-transfection of the HAMP promoter with FOG proteins 1 or 2 repressed the promoter response to treatments with either IL-6 or BMP-6. The effects of both GATA and FOG proteins on the promoter activity in response to IL-6 or BMP-6 treatment were abrogated by mutation of the GATA response element-TTATCT-in the HAMP promoter region -103/-98. In vivo, treatment of mice with lipopolysaccharide led to a transient increase of Gata-6 expression in the liver that was positively correlated with the expression of hepcidin. Our results indicate that during inflammation GATA-6 is up-regulated in concert with hepcidin while GATA-4 and FOG (1 and 2) are repressed.Biology of Metals 11/2013; · 3.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite continual progress in the cataloging of vertebrate regulatory elements, little is known about their organization and regulatory architecture. Here we describe a massively parallel experiment to systematically test the impact of copy number, spacing, combination and order of transcription factor binding sites on gene expression. A complex library of ∼5,000 synthetic regulatory elements containing patterns from 12 liver-specific transcription factor binding sites was assayed in mice and in HepG2 cells. We find that certain transcription factors act as direct drivers of gene expression in homotypic clusters of binding sites, independent of spacing between sites, whereas others function only synergistically. Heterotypic enhancers are stronger than their homotypic analogs and favor specific transcription factor binding site combinations, mimicking putative native enhancers. Exhaustive testing of binding site permutations suggests that there is flexibility in binding site order. Our findings provide quantitative support for a flexible model of regulatory element activity and suggest a framework for the design of synthetic tissue-specific enhancers.Nature Genetics 07/2013; · 35.21 Impact Factor