Smoking cessation increases gingival blood flow and gingival crevicular fluid.
ABSTRACT The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of smoking cessation on gingival blood flow (GBF) and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF).
Sixteen male smokers (aged 22-39 (25.3+/-4.0) years), with no clinical signs of periodontal and systemic diseases, were recruited. The experiment was performed before (baseline) and at 1, 3 and 5 days, and at 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks after smoking cessation. The status of smoking and smoking cessation was verified by exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) concentration, and by serum nicotine and cotinine concentrations. A laser Doppler flowmeter was used to record relative blood flow continuously, on three gingival sites of the left maxillary central incisor (mid-labial aspect of the gingival margin and bilateral interdental papillae). The GCF was collected at the mesio- and disto-labial aspects of the left maxillary central incisor and the volume was calculated by the Periotron 6000(R) system. The same measurements except for the GBF were performed on 11 non-smoking controls (four females and seven males), aged 23-27 (24.4+/-1.2) years.
Eleven of 16 smokers successfully completed smoking cessation for 8 weeks. At 1 day after smoking cessation, there was a significantly lower CO concentration than at baseline (p<0.01). Also, nicotine and cotinine concentrations markedly decreased at the second measurement. The GBF rate of smokers was significantly higher at 3 days after smoking cessation compared to the baseline (p<0.01). While the GCF volume was significantly increased at 5 days after smoking cessation compared to the baseline (p<0.01), it was significantly lower than that of non-smokers until 2 weeks after smoking cessation (p<0.01).
The results show that the gingival microcirculation recovers to normal in the early stages of smoking cessation, which could activate the gingival tissues metabolism/remodeling, and contribute to periodontal health.
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ABSTRACT: Many epidemiological evidences have proven the association between smoking and periodontal disease. The causality can be further established by linking findings of traditional epidemiological studies with the developments in molecular techniques that occurred in the last decade. The present article reviews recent studies that address the effect of smoking on molecular and genetic factors in periodontal disease. Most findings support the fact that tobacco smoking modulates destruction of the periodontium through different pathways: microcirculatory and host immune systems, connective tissue, and bone metabolism. Although smokers experience an increased burden of inflammatory responses to microbial challenges compared to non-smokers, understanding the association between smoking and periodontal diseases involves substantial problems with respect to accuracy of measurements, and particularly, sampling of many subjects. It remains unclear whether genetic susceptibility to periodontal disease is influenced by exposure to smoking or the effect of smoking on periodontal disease is influenced by genetic susceptibility. Employment of molecular techniques may play a key role in further elucidation of mechanisms linking smoking and periodontal destruction, the direct relationship as environmental factors and indirect relationship through genetic factors.Tobacco Induced Diseases 02/2010; 8:4.
Article: The effect of smoking on gingival crevicular fluid volume during the treatment of gingivitis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Smoking is detrimental to periodontal tissues, and periodontal destruction is greater among smokers. Paradoxically, smokers seem to have less gingival bleeding than never-smokers with comparable supragingival plaque. There is scarce information about the impact of smoking on gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) volume. This single-arm study clinical trial assessed the effect of smoking on GCF volume during the treatment of gingivitis. The sample included 24 never-smokers (47.3 +/-6.7years old, 41.7% males) and 21 smokers (45.8 +/- 5.1 years old; 55% males; 19.6 +/- 11.8 cigarettes/day; 24.1 +/- 8.7 years of smoking) with gingivitis and chronic periodontitis. After baseline supragingival scaling, patients received oral hygiene instructions weekly for 180 days. Particqants were examined at baseline, 30, 90 and 180 days, and gingival bleeding index (GBI), bleeding on prob-ing (BOP), periodontal probing depth (PPD) and GCF volume were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using linear models (Wald test, p<0.05%). Smokers had significantly smaller GCF volumes than never-smokers. This finding was not attributed to GBI, BOP or PPD. Higher volumes of GCF were significantly associated with deeper pockets. GCF was significantly reduced throughout the study for both smokers and never-smokers, and the largest reductions were seen at 30 days. Smoking affected the GCF crevicular fluid volume independently of the presence of gingival bleeding, BOP and PPD. Smoking status and PPD should be taken into account when GCG volume and components are under investigation.Acta odontológica latinoamericana: AOL 01/2009; 22(3):201-6.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to review the epidemiologic evidence for the effects of tobacco use and tobacco use cessation on a variety of oral diseases and conditions. Exposures considered include cigarette and bidi smoking, pipe and cigar smoking, and smokeless tobacco use. Oral diseases and disorders considered include oral cancer and precancer, periodontal disease, caries and tooth loss, gingival recession and other benign mucosal disorders as well as implant failure. Particular attention is given to the impact of tobacco use cessation on oral health outcomes. We conclude that robust epidemiologic evidence exists for adverse oral health effects of tobacco smoking and other types of tobacco use. In addition, there is compelling evidence to support significant benefits of tobacco use cessation with regard to various oral health outcomes. Substantial oral health benefits can be expected from abstention and successful smoking cessation in a variety of populations across all ages.International Dental Journal 02/2010; 60(1):7-30. · 0.96 Impact Factor