Development of a standardized method for comparing fluoride ingested from toothpaste by 1.5-3.5-year-old children in seven European countries. Part 2: Ingestion results

Oral Health Services Research Centre, University College Cork, Ireland.
Community Dentistry And Oral Epidemiology (Impact Factor: 2.03). 05/2004; 32 Suppl 1(s1):47-53. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0528.2004.00139.x
Source: PubMed


To develop a standardized method for measuring the variables affecting fluoride ingestion from toothpaste in young children between the ages of 1.5 and 3.5 years, and to use the method at seven European sites.
Random samples of children were invited to take part in the study. Parents who gave consent were visited at home. The children brushed their teeth using the toothpaste brand and toothbrush type currently in use. The difference between the fluoride dispensed onto the toothbrush and the fluoride recovered after accounting for losses was deemed to be the fluoride ingested. Details of other oral health-care habits were collected by questionnaire. For each child, the fluoride concentration of the toothpaste used was measured in the laboratory, from which an estimate of total daily fluoride ingestion was made.
There was considerable variation between countries in the types of toothpaste used and in the amounts of toothpaste applied and ingested. The amount of fluoride ingested ranged from 0.01 to 0.04 mg fluoride per kg of body weight per day.
The amount of fluoride ingested that is likely to be a risk factor for the development of dental fluorosis during tooth formation is equivocal and was found to vary widely between European countries. There appears to be a need for clearer health messages regarding the use of fluoridated toothpaste by young children.

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    • "Attempts have been made to address some of the issues associated with the use of clinical indices. The remote scoring of standardized clinical photographs addresses issues pertaining to examiner blinding and facilitates the longitudinal assessment of fluorosis through the archiving of materials and repeatability of image capture [20,21]. However, as this technique still fundamentally relies upon an examiner employing a subjective index, all of the confounding issues of a clinical index cannot be overcome. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The quantification of fluorosis using fluorescence imaging (QLF) hardware and stain analysis software has been demonstrated in selected populations with good correlation between fluorescent image metrics and TF Index scores from photographs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of QLF to quantify fluorosis in a population of subjects (aged 11–13) participating in an epidemiological caries and fluorosis survey in fluoridated and non-fluoridated communities in Northern England. Methods Fluorescent images of the maxillary incisors were captured together with standardized photographs were scored blind for fluorosis using the TF Index. Subjects were excluded from the analysis if there were restorations or caries on the maxillary central incisors. Results Data were available for 1774 subjects (n=905 Newcastle, n=869 Manchester). The data from the fluorescence method demonstrated a significant correlation with TF Index scores from photographs (Kendall’s tau = 0.332 p<0.0001). However, a number of additional confounding factors such as the presence of extrinsic stain or increased enamel translucency on some subjects without fluorosis or at low levels of fluorosis severity had an adverse impact on tooth fluorescence and hence the outcome variable. This in conjunction with an uneven distribution of subjects across the range of fluorosis presentations may have resulted in the lower than anticipated correlations between the fluorescent imaging metrics and the photographic fluorosis scores. Nevertheless, the fluorescence imaging technique was able to discriminate between a fluoridated and non-fluoridated population (p<0.001). Conclusions Despite confounding factors the fluorescence imaging system may provide a useful objective, blinded system for the assessment of enamel fluorosis when used adjunctively with photographic scoring.
    BMC Oral Health 11/2012; 12(1):47. DOI:10.1186/1472-6831-12-47 · 1.13 Impact Factor
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    • "The average proportion of fluoride intake from liquid food components was 92.2% (at baseline 95.8% and six months later 86.6%). This result is consistent with results of other studies [20,22]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The knowledge of background alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children is of utmost importance for introducing optimal and safe caries preventive measures for both individuals and communities. The aim of this study was to assess the daily fluoride intake analyzing duplicate samples of food and beverages. An attempt was made to calculate the daily intake of fluoride from food and swallowed toothpaste. Daily alimentary fluoride intake was measured in a group of 36 children with an average age of 4.75 years and an average weight of 20.69 kg at baseline, by means of a double plate method. This was repeated after six months. Parents recorded their child's diet over 24 hours and collected duplicated portions of food and beverages received by children during this period. Pooled samples of food and beverages were weighed and solid food samples were homogenized. Fluoride was quantitatively extracted from solid food samples by a microdiffusion method using hexadecyldisiloxane and perchloric acid. The content of fluoride extracted from solid food samples, as well as fluoride in beverages, was measured potentiometrically by means of a fluoride ion selective electrode. Average daily fluoride intake at baseline was 0.389 (SD 0.054) mg per day. Six months later it was 0.378 (SD 0.084) mg per day which represents 0.020 (SD 0.010) and 0.018 (SD 0.008) mg of fluoride respectively calculated per kg bw/day.When adding the values of unwanted fluoride intake from the toothpaste shown in the literature (0.17-1.21 mg per day) the estimate of the total daily intake of fluoride amounted to 0.554-1.594 mg/day and recalculated to the child's body weight to 0.027-0.077 mg/kg bw/day. In the children studied, observed daily fluoride intake reached the threshold for safe fluoride intake. When adding the potential fluoride intake from swallowed toothpaste, alimentary intake reached the optimum range for daily fluoride intake. These results showed that in preschool children, when trying to maximize the benefit of fluoride in caries prevention and to minimize its risk, caution should be exercised when giving advice on the fluoride containing components of child's diet or prescribing fluoride supplements.
    BMC Public Health 10/2011; 11(1):768. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-11-768 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    • "One method for evaluating children's tooth brushing habits is through direct observation. This method was used as the gold standard for comparison with another method in a previous study [8]. The use of mothers' reports regarding their children's tooth-brushing habits is another commonly employed method. "
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    ABSTRACT: Information bias can occur in epidemiological studies and compromise scientific outcomes, especially when evaluating information given by a patient regarding their own health. The oral habits of children reported by their mothers are commonly used to evaluate tooth brushing practices and to estimate fluoride intake by children. The aim of the present study was to compare observed tooth-brushing habits of young children using fluoridated toothpaste with those reported by mothers. A sample of 201 mothers and their children (aged 24-48 months) from Montes Claros, Brazil, took part in a cross-sectional study. At day-care centres, the mothers answered a self-administered questionnaire on their child's tooth-brushing habits. The structured questionnaire had six items with two to three possible answers. An appointment was then made with each mother/child pair at day-care centres. The participants were asked to demonstrate the tooth-brushing practice as usually performed at home. A trained examiner observed and documented the procedure. Observed tooth brushing and that reported by mothers were compared for overall agreement using Cohen's Kappa coefficient and the McNemar test. Cohen's Kappa values comparing mothers' reports and tooth brushing observed by the examiner ranged from poor-to-good (0.00-0.75). There were statistically significant differences between observed tooth brushing habits and those reported by mothers (p < 0.001). When observed by the examiner, the frequencies of dentifrice dispersed on all bristles (35.9%), children who brushed their teeth alone (33.8%) and those who did not rinse their mouths during brushing (42.0%) were higher than those reported by the mothers (12.1%, 18.9% and 6.5%, respectively; p < 0.001). In general, there was low agreement between observed tooth brushing and mothers' reports. Moreover, the different methods of estimation resulted in differences in the frequencies of tooth brushing habits, indicative of reporting bias. Data regarding children's tooth-brushing habits as reported by mothers should be considered with caution in epidemiological surveys on fluoridated dentifrice use and the risk of dental fluorosis.
    BMC Oral Health 09/2011; 11(1):22. DOI:10.1186/1472-6831-11-22 · 1.13 Impact Factor
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