Identification of the Streptococcus gordonii glmM gene encoding phosphoglucosamine mutase and its role in bacterial cell morphology, biofilm formation, and sensitivity to antibiotics.

Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Nippon Dental University School of Life Dentistry at Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology (Impact Factor: 2.68). 08/2008; 53(2):166-77. DOI: 10.1111/j.1574-695X.2008.00410.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Phosphoglucosamine mutase (EC catalyzes the interconversion of glucosamine-6-phosphate into glucosamine-1-phosphate, an essential step in the biosynthetic pathway leading to the formation of peptidoglycan precursor uridine 5'-diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine. The gene (glmM) of Escherichia coli encoding the enzyme has been identified previously. We have now identified a glmM homolog in Streptococcus gordonii, an early colonizer on the human tooth and an important cause of infective endocarditis, and have confirmed that the gene encodes phosphoglucosamine mutase by assaying the enzymatic activity of the recombinant GlmM protein. Insertional glmM mutant of S. gordonii did not produce GlmM, and had a growth rate that was approximately half that of the wild type. Morphological analyses clearly indicated that the glmM mutation causes marked elongation of the streptococcal chains, enlargement of bacterial cells, and increased roughness of the bacterial cell surface. Furthermore, the glmM mutation reduces biofilm formation and increases sensitivity to penicillins relative to wild type. All of these phenotypic changes were also observed in a glmM deletion mutant, and were restored by the complementation with plasmid-borne glmM. These results suggest that, in S. gordonii, mutations in glmM appear to influence bacterial cell growth and morphology, biofilm formation, and sensitivity to penicillins.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) is a direct glycosyl donor of linker unit (L-Rhamnose-D-GlcNAc) and an essential precursor of peptidoglycan in mycobacteria. Phosphoglucosamine mutase (GlmM) is involved in the formation of glucosamine-1-phosphate from glucosamine-6-phosphate, the second step in UDP-GlcNAc biosynthetic pathway. We have demonstrated that GlmM protein is essential for the growth of M. smegmatis. To facilitate the analysis of the GlmM protein function in mycobacteria, a tetracycline inducible M. smegmatis glmM gene knockdown strain was constructed by using an antisense RNA technology. After induction with 20 ng/ml tetracycline, the expression of GlmM protein in glmM gene knockdown strain was significantly decreased, resulting in a decline of cell growth. The morphological changes of glmM gene knockdown strain induced with 20 ng/ml tetracycline have been observed by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. Furthermore, insufficient GlmM protein reduced the biofilm formation and increased the sensitivity to isoniazid and ethambutol in M. smegmatis, indicating that GlmM protein had effect on the biofilm formation and the senstivity to some anti-tuberculosis drugs targeting the cell wall. These results provide a new insight on GlmM functions in mycobacteria, suggesting that GlmM could be a potential target for development of new anti-tuberculosis drug.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(4):e61589. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The biosynthetic pathway responsible for the production of hyaluronic acid (HA) has been thoroughly studied; however, many aspects remain elusive regarding the mechanisms that control molecular weight (MW). Previously, we demonstrated a positive correlation between MW and the concentration of the HA precursor sugar UDP-N acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc). To further investigate the role of UDP-GlcNAc in MW control, we increased the intracellular concentration of this monomer using both feeding strategies and genetic engineering approaches. Feeding cells glucosamine dramatically increased intracellular levels of UDP-GlcNAc, but unexpectedly, produced HA of a lower MW. This was subsequently attributed to an equally dramatic decrease in the level of the other HA precursor sugar UDP-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcUA). Feeding cells a mixture of glucose and GlcNAc addressed this imbalance of precursor sugars, leading to an increase in both UDP-GlcNAc and UDP-GlcUA; however, no significant increase in MW was observed. Despite the increase in UDP-sugars, RNA sequencing identified no increase in the expression of the genes involved in production of HA. Returning to genetic engineering approaches to examine UDP-GlcNAc and MW, genes known to contribute to the production of UDP-GlcNAc were over-expressed, both individually and together. Using this approach, UDP-GlcNAc and MW increased. At lower levels of UDP-GlcNAc, the positive correlation between UDP-GlcNAc levels and MW was maintained, however this relationship stalled at higher concentrations of UDP-GlcNAc. Taken together, these results suggest that while optimising HA precursor levels using feeding or genetic engineering approaches can improve HA MW, there is a point at which excess availability of precursors is no longer advantageous. Once precursor concentrations are addressed, it would seem that other uncharacterised factor(s) (e.g. rate of HA synthesis) also contribute to HA MW control.
    Molecular Biotechnology 08/2013; · 2.26 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The normal growth of mycobacteria attributes to the integrity of cell wall core which consists of peptidoglycan (PG), arabinogalactan (AG) and mycolic acids. N-acetyl glucosamine (GlcNAc) is an essential component in both PG and AG of mycobacterial cell wall. The biosynthetic pathway for UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), as a sugar donor of GlcNAc, is different in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The conversion of glucosamine-6-phosphate to glucosamine-1-phosphate, which is catalyzed by phosphoglucosamine mutase (GlmM), is unique to prokaryotes. Bioinformatic analysis showed that Msm MSMEG_1556 and Mtb Rv3441c are homologous to Ec GlmM. In this study, soluble Msm MSMEG_1556 protein and Mtb Rv3441c protein were expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) and their phosphoglucosamine mutase activity were detected. In order to further investigate the essentiality of MSMEG_1556 for the growth of M. smegmatis, we generated a conditional MSMEG_1556 knockout mutant, which harbored thermo-sensitive rescue plasmid carrying Mtb Rv3441c. As the rescue plasmid was unable to complement MSMEG_1556 deficiency at 42 °C, MSMEG_1556 knockout mutant did not grow. The dramatic morphological changes of MSMEG_1556 knockout mutant after temperature shift from 30 °C to 42 °C have been observed by scanning electron microscope. These results demonstrated that MSMEG_1556 is essential for growth of M. smegmatis. This study provided evidence that GlmM enzyme could be as a potential target for developing anti-tuberculosis drugs.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(8):e42769. · 3.53 Impact Factor


Available from
May 21, 2014