Acquired factor VIII inhibitors.
ABSTRACT Acquired hemophilia A is a rare bleeding diathesis caused by autoantibodies directed against clotting factor VIII and associated with an increased morbidity and mortality. This autoimmune disorder most commonly occurs in the elderly. Although it may be associated with several underlying pathologies, up to 50% of reported cases remain idiopathic. In contrast with congenital hemophilia, which is commonly characterized by hemarthroses, hemorrhages in patients with acquired hemophilia involve most frequently soft tissues. The 2 treatment priorities are to arrest the acute bleeding and to eradicate the factor VIII autoantibody. Acute bleeding episodes in patients with low-titer inhibitors can be treated using human factor VIII concentrates, whereas factor VIII bypassing agents, such as activated prothrombin complex concentrates or recombinant activated factor VII, are effective for the treatment of those with high-titer inhibitors. An analysis of the literature shows that the most effective first-line treatment for the eradication of factor VIII autoantibodies is the combination of steroids and cyclophosphamide. However, there is increasing evidence on the effectiveness of other treatment approaches, such as immune tolerance regimens and rituximab. If confirmed by large controlled studies, these innovative therapies might become a valid option for long-term eradication of factor VIII inhibitors.
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ABSTRACT: Spontaneous bleeding resulting in compartment syndrome at the lower adult leg due to acquired hemophilia A is rare. There are no reports on operative management of this entity.Journal of Medical Case Reports 04/2014; 8(1):132.
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ABSTRACT: Acquired haemophilia A is a rare life- and limb-threatening bleeding disorder if left untreated. Autoimmune thyroiditis is an autoimmune disorder that can be rarely associated with acquired haemophilia. Here we report a case of a 60-year-old woman presenting with cutaneous and muscle haematomas secondary to acquired haemophilia A in association with autoimmune thyroiditis, who was successfully treated with recombinant activated factor VII and immunosuppression. A 60-year-old Sri Lankan woman with a background of longstanding hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and bronchial asthma developed spontaneous cutaneous purpura and a limb-threatening intramuscular haematoma. Initial coagulation screening revealed prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time of 66.4 seconds (normal range 26 to -36 seconds) and time-dependent inhibitors against factor VIII. She had positive antinuclear antibody and antithyroid peroxidase (microsomal) antibody titre of over 1/80 and 1000IU/mL respectively. The diagnosis was therefore made of acquired haemophilia A in association with autoimmune thyroiditis. Acute limb-threatening bleeding was managed with recombinant activated factor VII (NovoSeven(R)). Immunosuppressive treatment consisting of oral prednisone 60mg/day and cyclophosphamide 100mg/day was administered in order to remove the factor VIII inhibitor. This treatment led to normalisation of her haemostatic parameters. This case illustrates a very rare association of acquired haemophilia and autoimmune thyroiditis as well as the importance of considering acquired haemophilia as a differential diagnosis of spontaneous bleeding. Acquired haemophilia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained bleeding in adults. Treatment of the acute coagulopathy with recombinant activated factor VIII and immunosuppressive therapy was successful in this case.Journal of medical case reports. 12/2014; 8(1):469.
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ABSTRACT: Adults with bleeding disorders may present to their family physician with minor bleeding symptoms or hematologic laboratory abnormalities discovered during evaluation for surgery or another purpose. Identifying the small proportion of adults who have an underlying bleeding disorder as the cause for such signs or symptoms may be challenging. In cases of asymptomatic hematologic laboratory abnormalities, the particular abnormality should narrow down the potentially affected hemostatic component(s), ideally streamlining subsequent investigation. In patients presenting with bleeding symptoms, a thorough history and physical examination are critical for first identifying bleeding as pathologic, then performing the appropriate diagnostic evaluation after excluding identifiable causes. Knowledge of the pathophysiologic processes contributing to impaired hemostasis in any given bleeding disorder ensures proper treatment and avoids therapies that are unnecessary or even contraindicated. Management is further determined by bleeding phenotype and, for invasive procedures, the anticipated risk for bleeding. Consultation with a hematologist may facilitate proper evaluation and treatment, particularly in adults with rare bleeding disorders or no identifiable cause for bleeding. This article reviews the diagnostic approach to hematologic laboratory abnormalities and abnormal bleeding in adults, as well as basic preventive care and hemostatic management of adults with bleeding disorders.The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine 07/2014; 27(4):549-564. · 1.85 Impact Factor