Development of species sensitivity distributions and estimation of HC5 of organochlorine pesticides with five statistical approaches. Ecotoxicology

Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, POPs Research Centre, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. .
Ecotoxicology (Impact Factor: 2.71). 06/2008; 17(8):716-24. DOI: 10.1007/s10646-008-0220-2
Source: PubMed


Eighteen organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were studied to develop species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) and calculate hazardous concentration thresholds for 5% of species (HC5), using both parametric (log-normal and log-logistic) and nonparametric bootstrap methods. In order to avoid picking repetitive values in each resample when performing bootstrap, and to determine the influence of fluctuation of toxicity data of single species on the SSDs and HC5, a modified bootstrap method was introduced, which can generate unrepetitive sampling data other than original elements in datasets. This method can enlarge a dataset without any assumption of a special distribution. Combined with parametric methods, modified bootstrap was also used to develop SSDs and determine HC5. The HC5 estimated by five approaches coincide well with each other with good positive correlation. Even if there is intra-species variation in a certain range of toxicity data; SSDs and HC5 are not very sensitive to the local fluctuation of toxicity of single species. The studied OCPs were classified according to their estimated HC5. A lower HC5 indicates higher ecological toxicity potentials. Endrin, DDTs and Endosulfan are OCPs with very high ecological toxicity potential. alpha-HCH has the lowest ecological toxicity potential in the studied OCPs. For OCPs with high ecological potential, more attention should be paid to their ecological risk.

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Available from: Hong-Ying Hu, May 16, 2014
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    • "The different, or even opposite results obtained using different species for toxicity assessment was consistent with the experimental results of this work using P. phosphoreum and V. qinghaiensis. Therefore, in order to address the risk assessment of chemicals, species distribution other than single species toxicity is suggested to be evaluated (Wang et al., 2008). While single species toxicity test based on the most sensitive single species can be adequately used to determine the " threshold concentration " in calculation of safe concentrations in the environment. "
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    ABSTRACT: This work aimed to better understand the ozonation process of a typical antibiotic pharmaceutical, trimethoprim in aqueous solution. The parent compound was almost completely degraded with ozone dose up to 3.5 mg/L with no mineralization. Twenty one degradation products were identified using an electrospray quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Several ozonation pathways were proposed including hydroxylation, demethylation, carbonylation, deamination and methylene group cleavage. Two species of luminescent bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum and Vibrio qinghaiensis were selected to assess the toxicity of ozonation products. For P. phosphoreum, higher level of toxicity was observed compared to the parent compound, but a negligible toxicity change was observed for V. qinghaiensis, indicating different modes of action for the same water sample. This was further confirmed by quantitative structure-active relationship analysis. This work proves the dominant role of ozone rather than hydroxyl radicals in the reaction and the potential risk after ozonation.
    Water Research 03/2013; 47(8). DOI:10.1016/j.watres.2013.02.048 · 5.53 Impact Factor
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    • "Currently, most countries rely on parametric methods, such as log-normal (CCME 2007; European Commission 2003), log-logistic (CCME 2007), and Burr type III (ANZECC and ARMCANZ 2000; CCME 2007) approaches to derive water quality criteria or to conduct ecotoxicological risk assessment. While based on our results, both parametric and nonparametric statistical methods all describe SSDs well; there is no doubt that the bootstrap approach was the best-fitting model, which is in agreement with reports by other authors (Wang et al. 2008; Wheeler et al. 2002). "
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    ABSTRACT: Species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) are increasingly used in both ecological risk assessment and derivation of water quality criteria. However, there has been debate about the choice of an appropriate approach for derivation of water quality criteria based on SSDs because the various methods can generate different values. The objective of this study was to compare the differences among various methods. Data sets of acute toxicities of 12 substances to aquatic organisms, representing a range of classes with different modes of action, were studied. Nine typical statistical approaches, including parametric and nonparametric methods, were used to construct SSDs for 12 chemicals. Water quality criteria, expressed as hazardous concentration for 5 % of species (HC(5)), were derived by use of several approaches. All approaches produced comparable results, and the data generated by the different approaches were significantly correlated. Variability among estimates of HC(5) of all inclusive species decreased with increasing sample size, and variability was similar among the statistical methods applied. Of the statistical methods selected, the bootstrap method represented the best-fitting model for all chemicals, while log-triangle and Weibull were the best models among the parametric methods evaluated. The bootstrap method was the primary choice to derive water quality criteria when data points are sufficient (more than 20). If the available data are few, all other methods should be constructed, and that which best describes the distribution of the data was selected.
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research 01/2013; 21(1). DOI:10.1007/s11356-013-1462-y · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    • "At present, there is no principle for choosing the method when fitting an SSD curve because no research can prove to which specific curve form that the SSD belongs. Therefore, different researchers may choose different fitting methods [21]; for example, the researchers in the US and Europe recommended using a lognormal distribution to conduct the SSD curves, whereas others in Australia and New Zealand recommended the Burr III. Taking into account that the Burr III type requires less data and has a flexible distribution pattern that can be flexibly converted into ReWeibull and Burr III, depending on the size of the parameter values, and be conducted well using the species toxicity data [14], this study used a Burr III distribution to fit the SSD curves. "
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    ABSTRACT: The levels of 18 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the water from Lake Chaohu were measured by a solid phase extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometer detector. The spatial and temporal distribution, possible sources, and potential ecological risks of the OCPs were analyzed. The annual mean concentration for the OCPs in Lake Chaohu was 6.99 ng/L. Aldrin, HCHs, and DDTs accounted for large proportions of the OCPs. The spatial pollution followed the order of Central Lakes > Western Lakes > Eastern Lakes and water area. The sources of the HCHs were mainly from the historical usage of lindane. DDTs were degraded under aerobic conditions, and the main sources were from the use of technical DDTs. The ecological risks of 5 OCPs were assessed by the species sensitivity distribution (SSD) method in the order of heptachlor > γ -HCH > p,p′-DDT > aldrin > endrin. The combining risks of all sampling sites were MS > JC > ZM > TX, and those of different species were crustaceans > fish > insects and spiders. Overall, the ecological risks of OCP contaminants on aquatic animals were very low.
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