Interaction between Agrobacterium tumefaciens oncoprotein 6b and a tobacco nucleolar protein that is homologous to TNP1 encoded by a transposable element of Antirrhinum majus.
ABSTRACT When gene 6b on the T-DNA of Agrobacterium tumefaciens is transferred to plant cells, its expression causes plant hormone-independent division of cells in in vitro culture and abnormal cell growth, which induces various morphological defects in 6b-expressing transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum plants. Protein 6b localizes to the nuclei, a requirement for the abnormal cell growth, and binds to a tobacco nuclear protein called NtSIP1 and histone H3. In addition, 6b has histone chaperone-like activity in vitro and affects the expression of various plant genes, including cell division-related genes and meristem-related class 1 KNOX homeobox genes, in transgenic Arabidopsis. Here, we report that 6b binds to a newly identified protein NtSIP2, whose amino acid sequence is predicted to be 30% identical and 51% similar to that of the TNP1 protein encoded by the transposon Tam1 of Antirrhinum majus. Immunolocalization analysis using anti-T7 antibodies showed nucleolar localization of most of the T7 epitope-tagged NtSIP2 proteins. A similar analysis with the T7-tagged 6b protein also showed subnucleolar as well as nuclear localization of the 6b protein. These results suggest the involvement of 6b along with NtSIP2 in certain molecular processes in the nucleolus as well as the nucleoplasm.
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ABSTRACT: Agrobacterium species genetically transform plants by transferring a region of plasmid DNA, T-DNA, into host plant cells. The bacteria also transfer several virulence effector proteins. T-DNA and virulence proteins presumably form T-complexes within the plant cell. Super-T-complexes likely also form by interaction of plant-encoded proteins with T-complexes. These protein-nucleic acid complexes traffic through the plant cytoplasm, enter the nucleus, and eventually deliver T-DNA to plant chromatin. Integration of T-DNA into the plant genome establishes a permanent transformation event, permitting stable expression of T-DNA-encoded transgenes. The transformation process is complex and requires participation of numerous plant proteins. This review discusses our current knowledge of plant proteins that contribute to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, the roles these proteins play in the transformation process, and the modern technologies that have been employed to elucidate the cell biology of transformation.Annual Review of Phytopathology 03/2010; 48:45-68. · 10.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Agrobacterium Ti plasmid (T-DNA) 6b proteins interact with many different host proteins implicated in plant cell proliferation. Here, we show that Arabidopsis plants overexpressing 6b display microRNA (miRNA) deficiency by directly targeting SERRATE and AGO1 via a specific loop fragment (residues 40-55). In addition, we report the crystal structures of Agrobacterium tumefaciens AK6b at 2.1 Å, Agrobacterium vitis AB6b at 1.65 Å, and Arabidopsis ADP ribosylation factor (ARF) at 1.8 Å. The 6b structure adopts an ADP-ribosylating toxin fold closely related to cholera toxin. In vitro ADP ribosylation analysis demonstrates that 6b represents a new toxin family, with Tyr 66, Thr 93, and Tyr 153 as the ADP ribosylation catalytic residues in the presence of Arabidopsis ARF and GTP. Our work provides molecular insights, suggesting that 6b regulates plant cell growth by the disturbance of the miRNA pathway through its ADP ribosylation activity.Genes & development 01/2011; 25(1):64-76. · 12.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The oncogenic 6b gene of Agrobacterium tumefaciens induces a number of morphological and metabolic alterations in plants. Although molecular functions associated with the 6b genes have been proposed, including auxin transport, sugar transport, transcriptional regulation, and miRNA metabolism, so far an unequivocal conclusion has not been obtained. We investigated the association between auxin accumulation and tumor development of the tobacco seedlings expressing the AK-6b gene under the control of the dexamethasone-inducible promoter. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) localization was examined by immunochemical staining with monoclonal antibody against IAA and by histochemical analysis using the IAA-specific induced construct, DR5::GUS (β-glucuronidase). Both procedures indicated that IAA preferentially accumulated in the tumorous protrusions as well as in newly developing vascular bundles in the tumors. Furthermore, true leaves also showed abaxial IAA localization, leading to altered leaves in which the adaxial and abaxial identities were no longer evident. Co-localization of cytokinin and auxin in the abaxial tumors was verified by immunochemical staining with an antibody against cytokinin. Treatment of AK-6b-seedlings with N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid, an inhibitor of polar auxin transport, promoted the morphological severity of phenotypes, whereas 1-naphthoxyacetic acid, a specific auxin influx carrier inhibitor, induced tumor regression on cotyledons and new tumorous proliferations on hypocotyls. Prominent accumulation of both auxin and cytokinin was observed in both regressed and newly developing tumors. We suggest from these results that modulation of auxin/cytokinin localization as a result of AK-6b gene expression is responsible for the tumorous proliferation.Planta 07/2013; · 3.35 Impact Factor