A comparison among HER2, TP53, PAI-1, angiogenesis, and proliferation activity as prognostic variables in tumours from 408 patients diagnosed with early breast cancer
ABSTRACT The prognostic potential of HER2, TP53 mutations, PAI-1 protein levels, angiogenesis and proliferation were investigated in tumours from 408 patients with early breast cancer followed >10 years. One hundred and sixty seven patients (41%) died from breast cancer.
Tumour sections were stained for HER2, CD34, and MIB-1. HER2 scores were based on staining intensity, 3+ being considered HER2+. Angiogenesis was scored by the Chalkley method. MIB-1 was evaluated using systematic random sampling. PAI-1 was measured by ELISA. TP53 mutations were evaluated by DGGE analysis and DNA sequencing.
Ninety one patients (22%) were HER2 positive. TP53 was mutated in 101 cases (25%). Median PAI-1, Chalkley and MIB-1 was 0.72 ng/mg protein (range, 0-90 ng/mg protein), 5.00 (range, 2.67-12.00) and 15% (range, 1-83%). MIB-1 was correlated with HER2+, Chalkley counts, TP53 mutations (all p <0.0001), and PAI-1 (p =0.002). In univariate analyses with DSS as endpoint, HER2+ (p <0.0001), mutated TP53 (p <0.0001), high Chalkley (p =0.008), MIB-1 (p =0.002), tumour size (p =0.008), grade (p <0.0001), negative estrogen receptor (p =0.0001), and lymph node status (p <0.0001) were prognostic markers. Among node-negative patients, HER2+ (p =0.0002), mutated TP53 (p =0.001), high PAI-1 levels (p =0.02), and grade (p =0.03) indicated poor DSS. In node-positive patients, HER2+ (p =0.0002), mutated TP53 (p <0.0001), MIB-1 (p =0.01), Chalkley scores (p =0.007), negative estrogen receptor (p <0.0001) and grade (p =0.001) indicated poor prognosis. In multivariate analysis, metastatic nodes (1-3 positive: RR 1.56 95% CI 1.02-2.38; >3 positive: RR 3.70 95% CI 2.54-5.38), HER2+ (RR 1.91, 95% CI 1.35-2.70), mutated TP53 (RR 1.70, 95% CI 1.21-2.38), PAI-1 (RR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.07) and grade 3 (RR 1.96, 95% CI 1.83-3.22) were independent markers of poor outcome.
Compared to PAI-1 protein levels, Chalkley counts and MIB-1, HER2+ and mutations of TP53 were the strongest independent markers of poor prognosis irrespective of nodal status.
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ABSTRACT: Background: Various oncogenes related to cancer have been extensively studied and several polymorphisms have been found to be associated with breast cancer. The current report outlines analysis of germ-line polymorphisms for C677T, A1298C (MTHFR), Leiden, R2 (FV) and 5G/4G (PAI-1) in Turkish breast cancer patients. We studied 51 cases diagnosed with invasive ductal and operable with lymph node-positive breast cancer and 106 women as a control group. Materials and Methods: Peripheric blood-DNA samples were used for genotyping by StripAssay technique which is based on the reverse-hybridization principle and real-time PCR methods and results were compared statistically. Results: The frequency of the MTHFR gene 677T and 1298A alleles were significantly higher in cancer patients than in the healthy subjects. The T allele frequency in codon 677 was 2.3-fold and C allele frequency was 3.1-fold increased in BC when compared to the control group for the MTHFR gene. Both differences were statistically significant (OR: 2.295, CI: 1.283-4.106), p<0.006 and (OR: 3.131, CI:1.826-5.369), p<0.0001 respectively. The R2 allele frequency of FV gene was 5.1-fold increased in the current BC when compared to the control group and that difference was also statistically significant (OR: 5.133, CI: 1.299-20.28), p<0.02. Conclusions: The present data suggest that germ-line polymorphisms of C677T, C1298A for MTHFR and R2 for FV are associated in breast cancer and may be additional prognostic markers related to breast cancer survival. The results now need to be confirmed in a larger group of patients.Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 05/2013; 14(5):2903-2908. DOI:10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2903 · 1.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The average age of the US population continues to increase. Age is the most important determinant of disease and disability in humans, but the fundamental mechanisms of aging remain largely unknown. Many age-related diseases are associated with an impaired fibrinolytic system. Elevated plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels are reported in age-associated clinical conditions including cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, obesity and inflammation. PAI-1 levels are also elevated in animal models of aging. While the association of PAI-1 with physiological aging is well documented, it is only recently that its critical role in the regulation of aging and senescence has become evident. PAI-1 is synthesized and secreted in senescent cells and contributes directly to the development of senescence by acting downstream of p53 and upstream of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3. Pharmacologic inhibition or genetic deficiency of PAI-1 was shown to be protective against senescence and the aging-like phenotypes in kl/kl and N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester-treated wild-type mice. Further investigation into PAI-1's role in senescence and aging will likely contribute to the prevention and treatment of aging-related pathologies.Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis 08/2014; 40(6). DOI:10.1055/s-0034-1387883 · 4.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Breast cancers that over-express a lipoxygenase or cyclooxygenase are associated with poor survival possibly because they overproduce metabolites that alter the cancer's malignant behaviors. However, these metabolites and behaviors have not been identified. We here identify which metabolites among those that stimulate breast cancer cell proliferation in vitro are associated with rapidly proliferating breast cancer. We used selective ion monitoring-mass spectrometry to quantify in the cancer and normal breast tissue of 27 patients metabolites that stimulate (15-, 12-, 5-hydroxy-, and 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoate, 13-hydroxy-octadecaenoate [HODE]) or inhibit (prostaglandin [PG]E2 and D2) breast cancer cell proliferation. We then related their levels to each cancer's proliferation rate as defined by its Mib1 score. 13-HODE was the only metabolite strongly, significantly, and positively associated with Mib1 scores. It was similarly associated with aggressive grade and a key component of grade, mitosis, and also trended to be associated with lymph node metastasis. PGE2 and PGD2 trended to be negatively associated with these markers. No other metabolite in cancer and no metabolite in normal tissue had this profile of associations. Our data fit a model wherein the overproduction of 13-HODE by 15-lipoxygenase-1 shortens breast cancer survival by stimulating its cells to proliferate and possibly metastasize; no other oxygenase-metabolite pathway, including cyclooxygenase-PGE2/D2 pathways, uses this specific mechanism to shorten survival.PLoS ONE 05/2013; 8(5):e63076. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0063076 · 3.53 Impact Factor