A comparison among HER2, TP53, PAI-1, angiogenesis, and proliferation activity as prognostic variables in tumours from 408 patients diagnosed with early breast cancer
ABSTRACT The prognostic potential of HER2, TP53 mutations, PAI-1 protein levels, angiogenesis and proliferation were investigated in tumours from 408 patients with early breast cancer followed >10 years. One hundred and sixty seven patients (41%) died from breast cancer.
Tumour sections were stained for HER2, CD34, and MIB-1. HER2 scores were based on staining intensity, 3+ being considered HER2+. Angiogenesis was scored by the Chalkley method. MIB-1 was evaluated using systematic random sampling. PAI-1 was measured by ELISA. TP53 mutations were evaluated by DGGE analysis and DNA sequencing.
Ninety one patients (22%) were HER2 positive. TP53 was mutated in 101 cases (25%). Median PAI-1, Chalkley and MIB-1 was 0.72 ng/mg protein (range, 0-90 ng/mg protein), 5.00 (range, 2.67-12.00) and 15% (range, 1-83%). MIB-1 was correlated with HER2+, Chalkley counts, TP53 mutations (all p <0.0001), and PAI-1 (p =0.002). In univariate analyses with DSS as endpoint, HER2+ (p <0.0001), mutated TP53 (p <0.0001), high Chalkley (p =0.008), MIB-1 (p =0.002), tumour size (p =0.008), grade (p <0.0001), negative estrogen receptor (p =0.0001), and lymph node status (p <0.0001) were prognostic markers. Among node-negative patients, HER2+ (p =0.0002), mutated TP53 (p =0.001), high PAI-1 levels (p =0.02), and grade (p =0.03) indicated poor DSS. In node-positive patients, HER2+ (p =0.0002), mutated TP53 (p <0.0001), MIB-1 (p =0.01), Chalkley scores (p =0.007), negative estrogen receptor (p <0.0001) and grade (p =0.001) indicated poor prognosis. In multivariate analysis, metastatic nodes (1-3 positive: RR 1.56 95% CI 1.02-2.38; >3 positive: RR 3.70 95% CI 2.54-5.38), HER2+ (RR 1.91, 95% CI 1.35-2.70), mutated TP53 (RR 1.70, 95% CI 1.21-2.38), PAI-1 (RR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.07) and grade 3 (RR 1.96, 95% CI 1.83-3.22) were independent markers of poor outcome.
Compared to PAI-1 protein levels, Chalkley counts and MIB-1, HER2+ and mutations of TP53 were the strongest independent markers of poor prognosis irrespective of nodal status.
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ABSTRACT: Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) are key molecules in pericellular proteolysis, a process that plays an important role in tumor invasion and metastasis. In the current study we investigated the prognostic significance of uPA and PAI-1 in primary invasive breast cancer. uPA and PAI-1 antigen levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in cytosols of 177 invasive ductal carcinoma specimens. The prognostic significance of uPA and PAI-1 was assessed for overall survival. The median follow-up time was 90 months. In univariate analysis, both uPA (third versus first tertile range of values; P = 0.02; HR = 2.08) and PAI-1 (third versus first tertile; P = 0.0007; HR = 3.1) were significant prognostic markers for overall survival. In multivariate analysis only nodal status (N2 vs N0; P = 0.0001; HR = 3.94) and PAI-1 (third versus first tertile; P = 0.004; HR = 3.05) remained significant independent prognostic factors. Both uPA and PAI-1 were correlated with established prognostic markers including histological grade, tumor size and Nottingham index. Our study with a 7.5-year follow-up confirmed the relation between elevated uPA and PAI-1 values and an aggressive course of invasive breast cancer. The prognostic significance of PAI-1 as an independent marker was proved for the overall group of breast cancer patients and the subgroup of node-positive patients.97(4):532-9. DOI:10.1700/950.10409
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ABSTRACT: Inducible cyclooxgenase-2 (COX-2) is commonly overexpressed in breast tumors and is a target for cancer therapy. Here, we studied the association of COX-2 with breast cancer survival and how this association is influenced by tumor estrogen and HER2 receptor status and Akt pathway activation. Tumor COX-2, HER2 and estrogen receptor α (ER) expression and phosphorylation of Akt, BAD, and caspase-9 were analyzed immunohistochemically in 248 cases of breast cancer. Spearman's correlation and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between COX-2 and tumor characteristics. Kaplan-Meier survival and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between COX-2 and disease-specific survival. COX-2 was significantly associated with breast cancer outcome in ER-negative [Hazard ratio (HR) = 2.72; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.36-5.41; comparing high versus low COX-2] and HER2 overexpressing breast cancer (HR = 2.84; 95% CI, 1.07-7.52). However, the hazard of poor survival associated with increased COX-2 was highest among patients who were both ER-negative and HER2-positive (HR = 5.95; 95% CI, 1.01-34.9). Notably, COX-2 expression in the ER-negative and HER2-positive tumors correlated significantly with increased phosphorylation of Akt and of the two Akt targets, BAD at Ser136 and caspase-9 at Ser196. Up-regulation of COX-2 in ER-negative and HER2-positive breast tumors is associated with Akt pathway activation and is a marker of poor outcome. The findings suggest that COX-2-specific inhibitors and inhibitors of the Akt pathway may act synergistically as anticancer drugs in the ER-negative and HER2-positive breast cancer subtype.BMC Cancer 11/2010; 10:626. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-10-626 · 3.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The average age of the US population continues to increase. Age is the most important determinant of disease and disability in humans, but the fundamental mechanisms of aging remain largely unknown. Many age-related diseases are associated with an impaired fibrinolytic system. Elevated plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels are reported in age-associated clinical conditions including cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, obesity and inflammation. PAI-1 levels are also elevated in animal models of aging. While the association of PAI-1 with physiological aging is well documented, it is only recently that its critical role in the regulation of aging and senescence has become evident. PAI-1 is synthesized and secreted in senescent cells and contributes directly to the development of senescence by acting downstream of p53 and upstream of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3. Pharmacologic inhibition or genetic deficiency of PAI-1 was shown to be protective against senescence and the aging-like phenotypes in kl/kl and N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester-treated wild-type mice. Further investigation into PAI-1's role in senescence and aging will likely contribute to the prevention and treatment of aging-related pathologies.Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis 08/2014; 40(6). DOI:10.1055/s-0034-1387883 · 3.69 Impact Factor