Transgenic wheat expressing a barley class II chitinase gene has enhanced resistance to Fusarium Head Blight. J Exp Bot

Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, University of Minnesota, 411 Borlaug Hall, 1991 Upper Buford Circle, St Paul, MN 55108, USA.
Journal of Experimental Botany (Impact Factor: 5.53). 02/2008; 59(9):2371-8. DOI: 10.1093/jxb/ern103
Source: PubMed


Fusarium head blight (FHB; scab), primarily caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a devastating disease of wheat worldwide. FHB causes yield reductions and contamination of grains with trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON). The genetic variation in existing wheat germplasm pools for FHB resistance is low and may not provide sufficient resistance to develop cultivars through traditional breeding approaches. Thus, genetic engineering provides an additional approach to enhance FHB resistance. The objectives of this study were to develop transgenic wheat expressing a barley class II chitinase and to test the transgenic lines against F. graminearum infection under greenhouse and field conditions. A barley class II chitinase gene was introduced into the spring wheat cultivar, Bobwhite, by biolistic bombardment. Seven transgenic lines were identified that expressed the chitinase transgene and exhibited enhanced Type II resistance in the greenhouse evaluations. These seven transgenic lines were tested under field conditions for percentage FHB severity, percentage visually scabby kernels (VSK), and DON accumulation. Two lines (C8 and C17) that exhibited high chitinase protein levels also showed reduced FHB severity and VSK compared to Bobwhite. One of the lines (C8) also exhibited reduced DON concentration compared with Bobwhite. These results showed that transgenic wheat expressing a barley class II chitinase exhibited enhanced resistance against F. graminearum in greenhouse and field conditions.

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    • "Biotic stresses Decreased effects of stinking smut (Tilletia tritici) Antifungal protein KP4 Clausen et al. (2000) Higher fusarium blight symptoms NPR1 gene (AtNPR1) Makandar et al. (2006) Significant reduction of fusarium head blight symptoms α-1-purothionin, thaumatin-like protein 1 (tlp-1), and β-1,3-glucanase Mackintosh et al. (2007) Reduced fusarium head blight severity and percentage of visually scabby kernels Class II chitinase Shin et al. (2008) Increased leaf rust resistance irrespective of genetic background Lr34 Risk et al. (2012) Increased resistance to aphids (E)-β-farnesene synthase Yu et al. (2012) Higher resistance to Gaeumannomyces graminis TiMYB2R-1 Liu et al. (2013) increasingly limiting for further dissection of stress-adaptive traits. The increasing use of geographic information system tools, soil water balance and plant growth models is expected to better describe the drought scenario faced by the crops in different target environments, compare and cluster phenotyping locations, and finally better understand genotype by environment interactions. "
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    • "Purified plant chitinases have been demonstrated to attack and partially digest isolated cell walls of several pathogenic fungi such as ascomycetes, basidiomycetes and deuteromycetes (Zhu and Lamb 1990). Successful transgene-induced pathogen resistance has been reported in plants such as tobacco (Zhu et al. 1994), rose (Marchant et al. 1998), chrysanthemum (Takatsu et al. 1999), strawberry (Vellicce et al. 2006) and wheat (Shin et al. 2008). The fungal pathogen Botrytis causes huge economic losses to a very wide range of host crop species as the disease can infect several tissues, including flowers, leaves, fruits and stems (Staats et al. 2005). "
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    • "Resistance against pathogenic fungus Bolar et al. (2001) (Trichoderma harzianum) causing Scab disease (Venturiainequalis) Rice chitinase gene Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) Enhances antifungal potential, showed Nirala KN et al. (2010) delayed onset of the disease and smaller lesions Rice chitinase gene litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn) Transgenic plants showed delayed onset of the Das et al. (2012) disease and smaller lesions following in vitro inoculation of die-back, leaf spots and blight pathogen(Phomopsissp) Barley class II chitinase gene Wheat Enhanced resistance against Fusariumgraminearum Shin et al. (2008) Endochitinase gene Cotton Enhanced fungal resistance in cotton against Emaniet al. (2003) (Trichoderma virens) Rhizoctonia solani and "
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