Rapid extraction of auditory feature contingencies.
ABSTRACT Contingent relations between sensory events render the environment predictable and thus facilitate adaptive behavior. The human capacity to detect such relations has been comprehensively demonstrated in paradigms in which contingency rules were task-relevant or in which they applied to motor behavior. The extent to which contingencies can also be extracted from events that are unrelated to the current goals of the organism has remained largely unclear. The present study addressed the emergence of contingency-related effects for behaviorally irrelevant auditory stimuli and the cortical areas involved in the processing of such contingency rules. Contingent relations between different features of temporally separate events were embedded in a new dynamic protocol. Participants were presented with the auditory stimulus sequences while their attention was captured by a video. The mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the event-related brain potential (ERP) was employed as an electrophysiological correlate of contingency detection. MMN generators were localized by means of scalp current density (SCD) and primary current density (PCD) analyses with variable resolution electromagnetic tomography (VARETA). Results show that task-irrelevant contingencies can be extracted from about fifteen to twenty successive events conforming to the contingent relation. Topographic and tomographic analyses reveal the involvement of the auditory cortex in the processing of contingency violations. The present data provide evidence for the rapid encoding of complex extrapolative relations in sensory areas. This capacity is of fundamental importance for the organism in its attempt to model the sensory environment outside the focus of attention.
- SourceAvailable from: István Winkler[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This article reviews recent event-related brain potential (ERP) studies of involuntary attention and distractibility in response to novelty and change in the acoustic environment. These studies show that the mismatch negativity, N(1) and P(3a) ERP components elicited by deviant or novel sounds in an unattended sequence of repetitive stimuli index different processes along the course to involuntary attention switch to distracting stimuli. These studies used new auditory-auditory and auditory-visual distraction paradigms, which enable one to assess objectively abnormal distractibility in several clinical patient groups, such as those suffering from closed-head injuries or chronic alcoholism.Audiology and Neurotology 5(3-4):151-66. · 2.32 Impact Factor
Article: Continuous selection.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A model of target selection in continuous search tasks is outlined. The model was designed to account for two basic observations that are difficult to cover within the framework of the traditional target-control-type models of search, namely, pure detection (detection without identification) and pseudotarget detection (detection of new items not to be searched for). The model combines two basic assumptions: first, that targets are detected by default, that is, by virtue of the fact that they do not fit into an internal model of to-be-expected events (target detection by default) and second, that this internal model is generated, maintained, and updated on the basis of the nontarget information encountered during search (integration of non-target information). Furthermore, it is assumed that non-target integration and target detection can both be carried out at several processing levels simultaneously. The evidence available to support and develop the model is reviewed, and some of its general implications for a theory of selective attention are discussed.Psychological Research 02/1986; 48(4):231-8. · 2.47 Impact Factor
Article: Sequence learning[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The ability to sequence information is fundamental to human performance. When subjects are asked to respond to one of several possible spatial locations of a stimulus, reaction times and error rates decrease when the target follows a sequence. In this article, we review the numerous theoretical and methodological perspectives that have been used to study sequence learning. The opportunity now exists to integrate evidence from different domains of cognitive science to begin to provide a comprehensive account of sequence learning. We suggest that subjects can learn sequences based on different information in a hierarchical representation, including either sequences of stimuli or sequences of responses. This learning can occur both with and without explicit awareness of the sequence. Multiple modes of learning exist and are subserved by different neural circuits.Trends in Cognitive Sciences 08/1998; · 16.01 Impact Factor