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Clinical guidelines for the manual titration of positive airway pressure in patients with obstructive sleep apnea

Stanford University Center of Excellence for Sleep Disorders, 401 Quarry Road, Suite 3301, Stanford, CA 94305-5730, USA.
Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (Impact Factor: 2.83). 04/2008; 4(2):157-71.
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ABSTRACT Positive airway pressure (PAP) devices are used to treat patients with sleep related breathing disorders (SRBDs), including obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). After a patient is diagnosed with OSA, the current standard of practice involves performing attended polysomnography (PSG), during which positive airway pressure is adjusted throughout the recording period to determine the optimal pressure for maintaining upper airway patency. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and bilevel positive airway pressure (BPAP) represent the two forms of PAP that are manually titrated during PSG to determine the single fixed pressure of CPAP or the fixed inspiratory and expiratory positive airway pressures (IPAP and EPAP, respectively) of BPAP for subsequent nightly usage. A PAP Titration Task Force of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine reviewed the available literature. Based on this review, the Task Force developed these recommendations for conducting CPAP and BPAP titrations. Major recommendations are as follows: (1) All potential PAP titration candidates should receive adequate PAP education, hands-on demonstration, careful mask fitting, and acclimatization prior to titration. (2) CPAP (IPAP and/or EPAP for patients on BPAP) should be increased until the following obstructive respiratory events are eliminated (no specific order) or the recommended maximum CPAP (IPAP for patients on BPAP) is reached: apneas, hypopneas, respiratory effort-related arousals (RERAs), and snoring. (3) The recommended minimum starting CPAP should be 4 cm H2O for pediatric and adult patients, and the recommended minimum starting IPAP and EPAP should be 8 cm H2O and 4 cm H2O, respectively, for pediatric and adult patients on BPAP. (4) The recommended maximum CPAP should be 15 cm H2O (or recommended maximum IPAP of 20 cm H2O if on BPAP) for patients < 12 years, and 20 cm H2O (or recommended maximum IPAP of 30 cm H2O if on BPAP) for patients > or = 12 years. (5) The recommended minimum IPAP-EPAP differential is 4 cm H2O and the recommended maximum IPAP-EPAP differential is 10 cm H2O (6) CPAP (IPAP and/or EPAP for patients on BPAP depending on the type of event) should be increased by at least 1 cm H2O with an interval no shorter than 5 min, with the goal of eliminating obstructive respiratory events. (7) CPAP (IPAP and EPAP for patients on BPAP) should be increased from any CPAP (or IPAP) level if at least 1 obstructive apnea is observed for patients < 12 years, or if at least 2 obstructive apneas are observed for patients > or = 12 years. (8) CPAP (IPAP for patients on BPAP) should be increased from any CPAP (or IPAP) level if at least 1 hypopnea is observed for patients < 12 years, or if at least 3 hypopneas are observed for patients > or = 12 years. (9) CPAP (IPAP for patients on BPAP) should be increased from any CPAP (or IPAP) level if at least 3 RERAs are observed for patients < 12 years, or if at least 5 RERAs are observed for patients > or = 12 years. (10) CPAP (IPAP for patients on BPAP) may be increased from any CPAP (or IPAP) level if at least 1 min of loud or unambiguous snoring is observed for patients < 12 years, or if at least 3 min of loud or unambiguous snoring are observed for patients > or = 12 years. (11) The titration algorithm for split-night CPAP or BPAP titration studies should be identical to that of full-night CPAP or BPAP titration studies, respectively. (12) If the patient is uncomfortable or intolerant of high pressures on CPAP, the patient may be tried on BPAP. If there are continued obstructive respiratory events at 15 cm H2O of CPAP during the titration study, the patient may be switched to BPAP. (13) The pressure of CPAP or BPAP selected for patient use following the titration study should reflect control of the patient's obstructive respiration by a low (preferably < 5 per hour) respiratory disturbance index (RDI) at the selected pressure, a minimum sea level SpO2 above 90% at the pressure, and with a leak within acceptable parameters at the pressure.) (14) An optimal titration reduces RDI < 5 for at least a 15-min duration and should include supine REM sleep at the selected pressure that is not continually interrupted by spontaneous arousals or awakenings. (15) A good titration reduces RDI < or = 10 or by 50% if the baseline RDI < 15 and should include supine REM sleep that is not continually interrupted by spontaneous arousals or awakenings at the selected pressure. (16) An adequate titration does not reduce the RDI < or = 10 but reduces the RDI by 75% from baseline (especially in severe OSA patients), or one in which the titration grading criteria for optimal or good are met with the exception that supine REM sleep did not occur at the selected pressure. (17) An unacceptable titration is one that does not meet any one of the above grades. (18) A repeat PAP titration study should be considered if the initial titration does not achieve a grade of optimal or good and, if it is a split-night PSG study, it fails to meet AASM criteria (i.e., titration duration should be > 3 hr).

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    • "OSA was defined according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD 2005) [18]. CPAP titration was performed during a therapeutic night in accordance with the AASM guidelines, and CPAP was offered to all of the patients [21]. The patients had three training sessions on the use of CPAP during the first 2 weeks following diagnosis (day 1, day 7 and day 14). "
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To assess the characteristics of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients with nightmares and the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy on nightmares. METHODS: Consecutive patients referred with a clinical suspicion of OSA underwent attended overnight sleep studies. OSA and nightmares were diagnosed according to the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) criteria, and CPAP titration was performed in accordance with the AASM guidelines. A follow-up visit was performed 3months later, and the patients with nightmares were divided into two groups: group 1 used CPAP with good compliance, whereas group 2 refused CPAP treatment and did not use other alternative treatments for OSA. RESULTS: The study included 99 patients who had been diagnosed with OSA with nightmares. Their mean age was 47.2±11.2years, and they had a mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 36.5±34.3/h. Also included were 124 patients with OSA without nightmares. The mean age of these patients was 45.4±13.9years, and they had a mean AHI of 40.2±35/h. The patients with nightmares had a significantly higher AHI during rapid eye movement sleep (REM) compared with the patients without nightmares (51.7±28.1 vs 39.8±31.9/h). Logistic regression analysis revealed that the REM-AHI and interrupted sleep at night were independent predictors of nightmares in the OSA patients. Nightmares disappeared in 91% of the patients who used CPAP compared with 36% of patients who refused to use CPAP (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Nightmares in OSA patients are associated with a higher REM-AHI. CPAP therapy results in a significant improvement in nightmare occurrence.
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    • "Respiratory events were scored according to the recommended rules by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM, 2007). Manual titration of CPAP was performed according to standard published criteria to eliminate all respiratory events (Kushida et al., 2008). Limb movements were calculated from EMG of the right and left anterior tibialis and required a minimum amplitude increase of 8 μV above the resting EMG voltage. "
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    • "Studies were performed and scored by New Zealand registered polysomnographers according to Rechtschaffen and Kales (1968) sleep staging criteria, ASDA arousal criteria (American Sleep Disorders Association, 1992) and the Chicago criteria for scoring respiratory events (American Academy of Sleep Medicine Task Force, 1999). Manual titration followed published guidelines (Kushida et al., 2008); the applied pressure was the optimal pressure reached following increasing ⁄ decreasing adjustments rather than the final pressure reached during the study. Studies were scored by a single polysomnographer and checked by the laboratory manager, with the laboratory manager and referring physician also checking the final titrated pressure. "
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