Public health - Reassessing HIV prevention

School of Public Health, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.
Science (Impact Factor: 31.48). 06/2008; 320(5877):749-50. DOI: 10.1126/science.1153843
Source: PubMed


Available from: Richard G Wamai, Jun 07, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Network scale-up is an indirect method for estimating the size of hidden, hard-to-count or high risk populations. Social network size estimation is the first step in this method. The present study was conducted with the purpose of estimating the social network size of the Tehran Province residents and its determinants. Maximum Likelihood Estimation was applied to estimate people's network sizes by using populations of known sizes and the scale-up method. Respondents were selected from Tehran province through convenience sampling in 2012. Out of thirteen selected subpopulations with known size, ten had minimum accuracy which used in our analysis. Of the 1029 respondents in this study, 46.7% were male. The social network size of Tehran Province residents was estimated to be 259.1 (CI95%: 242.2, 276) based on the ten known populations remained in this study. This size was 291.8 in men and 230.4 in women. Younger people (18-25 years old) had larger network sizes compared to the other age groups (P<0.001). Our estimation for social network size of Tehran inhabitants was smaller than that previously estimated size for the whole country (c=380). In addition, we found that the social network of subpopulations was different. This difference means that we need local estimations for sub-populations to improve the accuracy of population size estimation using network scale up method.
    Iranian Journal of Public Health 08/2014; 43(8):1079-90. · 0.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For young adults living in countries with AIDS epidemics, getting an HIV test may influence near-term decisions, such as when to leave school, when to marry, and when to have a first child. These behaviors, which define the transition from adolescence to adulthood, have long-term implications for well-being and directly affect a person’s risk of contracting HIV. Using an experimental design embedded in a panel survey from Malawi, this study assesses how HIV voluntary counseling and testing of young adults affects these decisions. The results show a negligible intent-to-treat effect of HIV testing on behaviors. There is some suggestive evidence, however, of a differential response by wealth and by prior beliefs about one’s HIV status.
    Economic Development and Cultural Change 04/2015; DOI:10.1086/681232 · 0.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Condom promotion and HIV testing for the general population have been major components of HIV prevention efforts in sub-Saharan Africa's high prevalence HIV epidemics, although little evidence documents their public health impact. Recent enhancements to the large, population-based demographic and health surveys (DHS) and AIDS information surveys (AIS) allow use of these data to assess the population-wide impact of these strategies. We analysed the latest DHS and AIS data from four sub-Saharan African countries with high prevalence, heterosexually transmitted HIV epidemics (Côte d'Ivoire, Swaziland, Tanzania and Zambia; N = 48 298) to answer two questions: 1) Are men and women who use condoms less likely to be HIV-infected than those who do not?; and 2) Are men and women who report knowing their HIV status more likely to use condoms than those who do not? Consistent condom use was associated with lower HIV infection rates for Swazi men but with higher HIV infection rates for women in Tanzania and Zambia; it made no significant difference in the other five sex/country subgroups analysed. Inconsistent condom use was not significantly associated with HIV status in any subgroup. Knowing one's HIV status was consistently associated with higher rates of condom use only among married people who were HIV-positive, even though condom use in this group remained relatively low. Effects of knowing one's HIV status among other subgroups varied. These results suggest that condoms have had little population-wide impact for HIV/AIDS prevention in these four countries. HIV testing appears to be associated with increased condom use mainly among people in stable partnerships who test positive. HIV testing and condom promotion may be more effective when targeted to specific groups where there is evidence of benefit rather than to general populations.
    African Journal of AIDS Research 03/2013; 12(1):9-15. DOI:10.2989/16085906.2013.815406 · 0.61 Impact Factor