Spatial approximation between secretin residue five and the third extracellular loop of its receptor provides new insight into the molecular basis of natural agonist binding.
ABSTRACT The amino terminus of class II G protein-coupled receptors plays an important role in ligand binding and receptor activation. Understanding of the conformation of the amino-terminal domain of these receptors has been substantially advanced with the solution of nuclear magnetic resonance and crystal structures of this region of receptors for corticotrophin-releasing factor, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, and gastric inhibitory polypeptide. However, the orientation of the amino terminus relative to the receptor core and how the receptor gets activated upon ligand binding remain unclear. In this work, we have used photoaffinity labeling to identify a critical spatial approximation between residue five of secretin and a residue within the proposed third extracellular loop of the secretin receptor. This was achieved by purification, deglycosylation, cyanogen bromide cleavage, and sequencing of labeled wild-type and mutant secretin receptors. This constraint has been used to refine our evolving molecular model of secretin docked at the intact receptor, which for the first time includes refined helical bundle and loop regions and reflects a peptide-binding groove within the receptor amino terminus that directs the amino terminus of the peptide toward the receptor body. This model is fully consistent with the endogenous agonist mechanism for class II G protein-coupled receptor activation, where ligand binding promotes the interaction of a portion of the receptor amino terminus with the receptor body to activate it.
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ABSTRACT: We report the development of homology models of dopamine (D(2), D(3), and D(4)), serotonin (5-HT(1B), 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2B), and 5-HT(2C)), histamine (H(1)), and muscarinic (M(1)) receptors, based on the high-resolution structure of the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor. The homology models were built and refined using Prime. We have addressed the required modeling of extracellular loop 2, which is often implicated in ligand binding. The orthosteric sites of the models were optimized using induced fit docking, to allow for side-chain flexibility, and the resulting receptor models have been evaluated using protein validation tools. Of the nine homology models developed, six models showed moderate to good enrichment in virtual screening experiments (5-HT(2A), 5-HT(1B), D(2), 5-HT(2C), D(3), and M(1)). The 5-HT(2A) receptor displayed the highest enrichment in virtual screening experiments with enrichment factors of 6.1, 6.9, and 5.9 at 2, 5, and 10%, respectively, of the screened database. However, three of the models require further refinement (5-HT(2B), D(4), and H(1)), due to difficulties in modeling some of the binding site residues as well as the extracellular loop 2. Our effort also aims to supplement the limited number of tested G protein-coupled receptor homology models based on the beta(2) crystal structure that are freely available to the research community.Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling 03/2010; 50(4):626-37. · 4.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: While it is evident that the carboxyl-terminal region of natural peptide ligands bind to the amino-terminal domain of class B GPCRs, how their biologically critical amino-terminal regions dock to the receptor is unclear. We utilize cysteine trapping to systematically explore spatial approximations among residues in the first five positions of secretin and in every position within the receptor extracellular loops (ECLs). Only Cys(2) and Cys(5) secretin analogues exhibited full activity and retained moderate binding affinity (IC(50): 92±4 and 83±1 nM, respectively). When these peptides probed 61 human secretin receptor cysteine-replacement mutants, a broad network of receptor residues could form disulfide bonds consistent with a dynamic ligand-receptor interface. Two distinct patterns of disulfide bond formation were observed: Cys(2) predominantly labeled residues in the amino terminus of ECL2 and ECL3 (relative labeling intensity: Ser(340), 94±7%; Pro(341), 84±9%; Phe(258), 73±5%; Trp(274) 62±8%), and Cys(5) labeled those in the carboxyl terminus of ECL2 and ECL3 (Gln(348), 100%; Ile(347), 73±12%; Glu(342), 59±10%; Phe(351), 58±11%). These constraints were utilized in molecular modeling, providing improved understanding of the structure of the transmembrane bundle and interconnecting loops, the orientation between receptor domains, and the molecular basis of ligand docking. Key spatial approximations between peptide and receptor predicted by this model (H(1)-W(274), D(3)-N(268), G(4)-F(258)) were supported by mutagenesis and residue-residue complementation studies.-Dong, M., Xu, X., Ball, A. M., Makhoul, J. A., Lam, P. C.-H., Pinon, D. I., Orry, A., Sexton, P. M., Abagyan, R., Miller, L. J. Mapping spatial approximations between the amino terminus of secretin and each of the extracellular loops of its receptor using cysteine trapping.The FASEB Journal 09/2012; · 5.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The secretin receptor is a prototypic member of family B G protein-coupled receptors that binds and responds to a linear 27-residue peptide natural ligand. The carboxyl-terminal region of this peptide assumes a helical conformation that occupies the peptide-binding cleft within the structurally complex disulphide-bonded amino-terminal domain of this receptor. The amino terminus of secretin is directed toward the core helical bundle domain of this receptor that seems to be structurally distinct from the analogous region of family A G protein-coupled receptors. This amino-terminal region of secretin is critical for its biological activity, to stimulate Gs coupling and the agonist-induced cAMP response. While the natural peptide ligand is known to span the two key receptor domains, with multiple residue-residue approximation constraints well established, the orientation of the receptor amino terminus relative to the receptor core helical bundle domain is still unclear. Fluorescence studies have established that the mid-region and carboxyl-terminal end of secretin are protected by the receptor peptide-binding cleft and the amino terminus of secretin is most exposed to the aqueous milieu as it is directed toward the receptor core, with the mid-region of the peptide becoming more exposed upon receptor activation. Like other family B peptide hormone receptors, the secretin receptor is constitutively present in a structurally specific homo-dimeric complex built around the lipid-exposed face of transmembrane segment four. This complex is important for facilitating G protein association and achieving the high affinity state of this receptor.British Journal of Pharmacology 05/2011; 166(1):18-26. · 5.07 Impact Factor