Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog structural determinants of selectivity for inhibition of cell growth: support for the concept of ligand-induced selective signaling.
ABSTRACT GnRH and its receptor are expressed in human reproductive tract cancers, and direct antiproliferative effects of GnRH analogs have been demonstrated in cancer cell lines. The intracellular signaling responsible for this effect differs from that mediating pituitary gonadotropin secretion. The GnRH structure-activity relationship is different for the two effects. Here we report a structure-activity relationship study of GnRH agonist antiproliferative action in model cell systems of rat and human GnRH receptors stably expressed in HEK293 cells. GnRH II was more potent than GnRH I in inhibiting cell growth in the cell lines. In contrast, GnRH I was more potent than GnRH II in stimulating inositol phosphate production, the signaling pathway in gonadotropes. The different residues in GnRH II (His(5), Trp(7), Tyr(8)) were introduced singly or in pairs into GnRH I. Tyr(5) replacement by His(5) produced the highest increase in the antiproliferative potency of GnRH I. Tyr(8) substitution of Arg(8) produced the most selective analog, with very poor inositol phosphate generation but high antiproliferative potency. In nude mice bearing tumors of the HEK293 cell line, GnRH II and an antagonist administration was ineffective in inhibiting tumor growth, but D-amino acid stabilized analogs (D-Lys(6) and D-Arg(6)) ablated tumor growth. Docking of GnRH I and GnRH II to the human GnRH receptor molecular model revealed that Arg(8) of GnRH I makes contact with Asp(302), whereas Tyr(8) of GnRH II appears to make different contacts, suggesting these residues stabilize different receptor conformations mediating differential intracellular signaling and effects on gonadotropin and cell growth. These findings provide the basis for the development of selective GnRH analog cancer therapeutics that directly target tumor cells or inhibit pituitary gonadotropins or do both.
PLoS ONE 05/2012; 7(5). DOI:10.1371/annotation/27f1021c-b6f2-4b90-98bc-fcacd2679185 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: D-amino acid substitutions at glycine postion 6 in GnRH-I decapeptide can possess super-agonist activity and enhanced in vivo pharmacokinetics. Agonists elicit growth-inhibition in tumorigenic cells expressing the GnRH receptor above threshold levels. However, new agonists with modified properties are required to improve the anti-proliferative range. Effects of residue substitutions and methylations on tumourigenic HEK293[SCL60] and WPE-1-NB26-3 prostate cells expressing the rat GnRH receptor were compared. Peptides were ranked according to receptor binding affinity, induction of inositol phosphate production and cell growth-inhibition. Analogues possessing D-Trp(6) (including triptorelin), D-Leu(6) (including leuprolide), D-Ala(6), D-Lys(6), or D-Arg(6) exhibited agonist and anti-proliferative activity. Residues His(5) or His(5),Trp(7),Tyr(8), corresponding to residues found in GnRH-II, were tolerated, with retention of sub-nanomolar/low nanomolar binding affinities and EC50s for receptor activation and IC50s for cell growth-inhibition. His(5)D-Arg(6)-GnRH-I exhibited reduced binding affinity and potency, effective in the mid-nanomolar range. However, all GnRH-II-like analogues were less potent than triptorelin. By comparison, three methylated-Trp(6) triptorelin variants showed differential binding, receptor activation and anti-proliferation potency. Significantly, 5-Methyl-DL-Trp(6)-Triptorelin was equipotent to triptorelin. Subsequent studies should determine whether pharmacologically enhanced derivatives of triptorelin can be developed by further alkylations, without substitutions or cleavable cytotoxic adducts, to improve the extent of growth-inhibition of tumour cells expressing the GnRH receptor.06/2012; 1(2):86-98.