Ellagitannins are bioactive polyphenols that have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory bioactivities. Pomegranate juice has the highest concentration of ellagitannins of any commonly consumed juice and contains the unique ellagitannin, punicalagin. Punicalagin is the largest molecular weight polyphenol known. Ellagitannins are not absorbed intact into the blood stream but are hydrolyzed to ellagic acid. They are also metabolized by gut flora into urolithins which are conjugated in the liver and excreted in the urine. These urolithins are also bioactive and inhibit prostate cancer cell growth. Inhibition of Nuclear Factor Kappa-B activation has been shown in prostate cancer cells and in human prostate cancer xenografts in mice. In clinical studies, pomegranate juice administration led to a decrease in the rate of rise of Prostate Specific Antigen after primary treatment with surgery or radiation. Continued translational research on the chemopreventive potential of pomegranate ellagitannins is ongoing.
"They also inhibit the activity of DNA polymerase α (Saito et al., 2004), P-glycoprotein ( Jodoina et al., 2002), caspases 3, 7 and 2 (Katunuma et al., 2006), and have hypoglycemic properties in vivo (Lu et al., 2011). Ellagitannins and their metabolites formed in the gastrointestinal tract through the action of colonic bacteria (ellagic acid and urolithins A–D) are thought to have chemopreventive properties, especially against colon cancer (Heber, 2008). "
"), to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and to act as cancer chemopreventive agents in a multitude of preclinical and animal studies (Hagiwara et al. 2010; Heber 2008; Ngo et al. 2011; Petersen and Simmonds 2003; Singh et al. 2011; Viladomiu et al. 2013; Wu and Wang 2012). "
"The total EA quantities of different fruits and plants are provided in Table 1. EA exerts potent preventive and therapeutic effects against several types of cancers, including colon cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, skin cancer, esophageal cancer, and osteogenic sarcoma14,15. The anticarcinogenic properties of EA have drawn increasing attention globally. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Cancer treatments by chemotherapeutic agents, surgery, and radiation have not been highly effective in reducing the incidence of cancers and increasing the survival rate of cancer patients. In recent years, plant-derived compounds have attracted considerable attention as alternative cancer remedies for enhancing cancer prevention and treatment because of their low toxicities, low costs, and low side effects. Ellagic acid (EA) is a natural phenolic constituent. Recent in vitro and in vivo experiments have revealed that EA elicits anticarcinogenic effects by inhibiting tumor cell proliferation, inducing apoptosis, breaking DNA binding to carcinogens, blocking virus infection, and disturbing inflammation, angiogenesis, and drug-resistance processes required for tumor growth and metastasis. This review enumerates the anticarcinogenic actions and mechanisms of EA. It also discusses future directions on the applications of EA.
Cancer Biology and Medicine 06/2014; 11(2):92-100. DOI:10.7497/j.issn.2095-3941.2014.02.004
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