Omega-3 fatty acids effect on wound healing.

The Ohio State University, College of Nursing, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1289, USA.
Wound Repair and Regeneration (Impact Factor: 2.77). 05/2008; 16(3):337-45. DOI: 10.1111/j.1524-475X.2008.00388.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Physiological events in the initial inflammatory stage of cutaneous wound healing influence subsequent stages. Proinflammatory cytokines coordinate molecular and cellular processes during the inflammatory stage. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) alter proinflammatory cytokine production, but how this phenomenon specifically influences wound healing is not clearly understood. In the present study, effects of marine-derived omega-3 eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic PUFA on proinflammatory cytokines in wound serum and time to complete healing in healthy, human skin were evaluated. We compared plasma fatty acid levels in two groups (N=30) at baseline and after 4 weeks of eicosapentaenoic/docosahexaenoic PUFA supplements (active) or placebo (control). Eight small blisters on participants' forearms were created. Proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were quantified in blister fluid at 5 and 24 hours after creation. Wound area was calculated daily. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic plasma fatty acid levels were significantly higher in the active group. Additionally, we found significantly higher IL-1beta levels in blister fluid in the active group and time to complete wound closure was somewhat longer. These results suggest that eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic PUFA may increase proinflammatory cytokine production at wound sites and thus, depending on the clinical context, have noninvasive, therapeutic potential to affect cutaneous wound healing.

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    ABSTRACT: Skin wound healing models can be used to detect changes in immune function in response to interventions. This study used a test-retest format to assess the reliability of a skin suction blister procedure for quantitatively evaluating human immune function in repeated measures type studies. Up to eight suction blisters (~30 mm(2)) were induced via suction on each participant's left and right forearm (randomized order; blister session 1 and 2), separated by approximately one week. Fluid was sampled from each blister, and the top layer of each blister was removed to reveal up to eight skin wounds. Fluid from each wound was collected 4, 7 and 24 hours after blisters were induced, and proinflammatory cytokines were measured. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), to assess skin barrier recovery, was measured daily at each wound site until values were within 90% of baseline values (i.e., unbroken skin). Sleep, stress and inflammation (i.e., factors that affect wound healing and immune function), preceding the blister induction, were assessed via activity monitors (Actical, Philips Respironics, Murrysville, Pennsylvania), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and C-reactive protein (CRP), respectively. Area-under-the-curve and TEWL, between blister session 1 and 2, were compared using Pearson correlations and partial correlations (controlling for average nightly sleep, PSS scores and CRP). The suction blister method was considered reliable for assessing immune response and skin barrier recovery if correlation coefficients reached 0.7. Volunteers (n=16; 12 M; 4 F) were 23±5 years [mean±SD]. Time to skin barrier restoration was 4.9±0.8 and 4.8±0.9 days for sessions 1 and 2, respectively. Correlation coefficients for skin barrier restoration, IL-6, IL-8 and MIP-1α were 0.9 (P<0.0001), 0.7 (P=0.008) and 0.9 (P<0.0001), respectively. When average nightly sleep, PSS scores and CRP (i.e., percent difference between sessions 1 and 2) were taken into consideration, correlations in immune response between sessions 1 and 2 were improved for IL-8 (0.8, P=0.002) and TNF-α (0.7, P=0.02). The skin suction blister method is sufficiently reliable for assessing skin barrier restoration and immune responsiveness. This data can be used to determine sample sizes for cross-sectional or repeated-measures types of studies testing the impact of various stressors on immune response, and/or the efficacy of interventions to mitigate decrements in immune response to stress. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Journal of Immunological Methods 01/2015; 417. DOI:10.1016/j.jim.2015.01.002 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stress-related immune alterations can be consequential for health; they can enhance susceptibility to infectious agents and influence the severity of infectious disease, diminish the strength of immune responses to vaccines, reactivate latent viruses, and slow wound healing. Furthermore, stressful events and negative emotions promote systemic proinflammatory cytokine production while reducing beneficial local production of proinflammatory cytokines at the wound site that are important for wound healing. Dietary omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) also influence systemic inflammation; high proportions of omega-6 to omega-3 boost inflammation, while omega-3 has anti-inflammatory properties. Additionally, the limited evidence thus far suggests that omega-3 PUFA may enhance local inflammatory responses at wound sites. Moreover, an individual's dietary proportion of omega-3 to omega-6 may influence the magnitude of inflammatory responses to stressful events. Thus, wound healing and surgery provide exemplars of how stress and depression can interact with the diet to influence important clinical outcomes.
    Military medicine 11/2014; 179(11 Suppl):129-33. DOI:10.7205/MILMED-D-14-00167 · 0.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Significance: Only a few decades ago, the primary focus of nutritional supplementation was to prevent deficiencies of essential nutrients. It is now recognized that, at higher than essential levels, selected nutrients can have a pharmacologic effect to prevent or treat disease. Recent Advances: Two of the most important pharmaconutrients, arginine, and the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oil, have been shown to have profound effects on wound healing and infections. Critical Issues: Both arginine and fish oils have independent benefits, but the combination appears to be much more effective. This combination has been shown to affect outcomes involving wound healing and infections, as reviewed here, and can also affect incidence and outcomes in cardiovascular disease, diabetes, organ transplant rejection, and other inflammatory conditions. These possibilities have not yet progressed to widespread clinical application. Future Directions: The optimal combinations of immunonutrients, timing of administration, and the doses needed for best results need to be determined in preclinical and clinical studies. Also, the mechanisms involved in the administration of pharmaconutrients need to be established.
    11/2014; 3(11):682-690. DOI:10.1089/wound.2013.0469


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Jun 4, 2014