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Omega-3 fatty acids effect on wound healing

The Ohio State University, College of Nursing, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1289, USA.
Wound Repair and Regeneration (Impact Factor: 2.77). 05/2008; 16(3):337-45. DOI: 10.1111/j.1524-475X.2008.00388.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Physiological events in the initial inflammatory stage of cutaneous wound healing influence subsequent stages. Proinflammatory cytokines coordinate molecular and cellular processes during the inflammatory stage. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) alter proinflammatory cytokine production, but how this phenomenon specifically influences wound healing is not clearly understood. In the present study, effects of marine-derived omega-3 eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic PUFA on proinflammatory cytokines in wound serum and time to complete healing in healthy, human skin were evaluated. We compared plasma fatty acid levels in two groups (N=30) at baseline and after 4 weeks of eicosapentaenoic/docosahexaenoic PUFA supplements (active) or placebo (control). Eight small blisters on participants' forearms were created. Proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were quantified in blister fluid at 5 and 24 hours after creation. Wound area was calculated daily. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic plasma fatty acid levels were significantly higher in the active group. Additionally, we found significantly higher IL-1beta levels in blister fluid in the active group and time to complete wound closure was somewhat longer. These results suggest that eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic PUFA may increase proinflammatory cytokine production at wound sites and thus, depending on the clinical context, have noninvasive, therapeutic potential to affect cutaneous wound healing.

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    • "Previous studies have shown that the healing process may be modulated by fatty acids [8] [10]. Linolenic (18 : 3 í µí¼”-3), linoleic (18 : 2 í µí¼”-6), and oleic (18 : 1 í µí¼”-9) acids are precursors of eicosapentaenoic (EPA) (20 : 5 í µí¼”-3), arachidonic (AA) (20 : 4 í µí¼”-6), and eicosatrienoic acids (ETA) (20 : 3 í µí¼”-9) which are part of the structure of cell membrane phospholipids and serve as substrates for the synthesis of eicosanoids (inflammatory mediators), such as prostaglandins, thromboxanes, prostacyclins (via cyclooxygenase), and leukotrienes (via lipooxygenase) [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the wound-healing activity of a semisolid formulation of avocado oil, SSFAO 50%, or avocado oil in natura, on incisional and excisional cutaneous wound models in Wistar rats. An additional objective was to quantify the fatty acids present in avocado oil. On the 14th day, a significant increase was observed in percentage wound contraction and reepithelialization in the groups treated with 50% SSFAO or avocado oil compared to the petroleum jelly control. Anti-inflammatory activity, increase in density of collagen, and tensile strength were observed inSSFAO 50% or avocado oil groups, when compared to control groups. The analysis of the components of avocado oil by gas chromatography detected the majority presence of oleic fatty acid (47.20%), followed by palmitic (23.66%), linoleic (13.46%) docosadienoic (8.88%), palmitoleic (3.58%), linolenic (1.60%), eicosenoic (1.29%), and myristic acids (0.33%). Our results show that avocado oil is a rich source of oleic acid and contains essential fatty acids. When used in natura or in pharmaceutical formulations for topical use, avocado oil can promote increased collagen synthesis and decreased numbers of inflammatory cells during the wound-healing process and may thus be considered a new option for treating skin wounds.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 03/2013; 2013:472382. DOI:10.1155/2013/472382 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    • "In the case of injury, inflammatory cells (mainly macrophages and leukocytes) release chemical mediators like cytokines (interleukins and tumoral necrosis factors ) and eicosanoids (prostaglandins and leukotrienes), among others, that regulate the intensity and duration of the inflammatory phase. It has been reported that the presence of a certain level of pro-inflammatory cytokines is essential for normal wound healing, because it initiates and regulates the cascade of molecular and cellular processes during the inflammatory stage [72] [73]. However , unresolved or chronic inflammation can delay wound healing and, therefore, a delicate ratio between pro-inflammatory and antiinflammatory mediators should be attained. "
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    ABSTRACT: N-Carboxybutyl chitosan (CBC), collagen/cellulose (Promogran®) and hyaluronic acid-based (Hyalofill®) polymeric matrices/dressings were loaded with an extract obtained from jucá (Libidibia ferrea) and in order to develop wound dressings endowed with anti-inflammatory activity. Jucá fruits were subjected to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using CO2 at 25 MPa and 50 °C and the resulting extract was later incorporated into the above referred wound dressings by a supercritical fluid impregnation/deposition method (SSI). GC analysis revealed that the obtained SFE extract is particularly rich in unsaturated (52%) and saturated (26%) fatty acids as well as in terpenoids (13%) such as lupenone and gamma-sitosterol. Extract loading yields depended on the affinity of the hydrophobic extract for the specifically employed wound dressing material and was almost 2-fold greater for CBC than for the other two commercial wound dressings. The prepared extract-loaded dressings were cytocompatible with RAW 264.7 macrophages (viability > 85% at 24 h) and down-regulated the expression of TNF-α and IL-1α pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as the production of nitric oxide, which confirms the anti-inflammatory capacity of the employed jucá extract. Nevertheless, such effect was somehow counteracted by a pro-inflammatory activity that was exhibited by CBC. Prepared dressings presented a wide range of water vapor ((2.9–14.7) × 1014 kg/(s m Pa)) and oxygen permeability (150 up to 830 barrer) which make them potentially suitable for the management of various wound types at different healing stages.
    Journal of Supercritical Fluids The 02/2013; 74:34–45. DOI:10.1016/j.supflu.2012.12.007 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    • "These results corroborate those found by Otranto et al. [2], which demonstrated a significant amount of inflammatory cells in skin flaps of rats given a diet rich in linseed oil during the process of tissue repair. According to McDaniel et al. [34], people supplemented with a diet rich in ω-3 PUFA levels showed elevated proinflammatory cytokines in skin tissue. Studies have shown that PUFAs are main precursors of many lipid mediators involved in the inflammatory response, such as vascular contraction, chemotaxis, adhesion, transmigration and cell activation, and these are important functions of the inflammatory phase of tissue repair [35, 36]. "
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    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2012; 2012:270752. DOI:10.1155/2012/270752 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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