Genotype-phenotype correlations in MYCN-related Feingold syndrome
ABSTRACT Feingold syndrome (FS) is the most frequent cause of familial syndromic gastrointestinal atresia and follows autosomal dominant inheritance. FS is caused by germline mutations in or deletions of the MYCN gene. Previously, 12 different heterozygous MYCN mutations and two deletions containing multiple genes including MYCN were described. All these mutations result in haploinsufficiency of both the canonical MYCN protein and the shorter isoform, DeltaMYCN. We report 11 novel mutations including seven mutations in exon 2 that result in a premature termination codon (PTC) in the long MYCN transcript. Moreover, we have identified a PTC in exon 1 that only affects the DeltaMYCN isoform, without a phenotypic effect. This suggests that mutations in only DeltaMYCN do not contribute to the FS. Additionally, we found three novel deletions encompassing MYCN. Together with our previous report we now have a total of four missense mutations in the DNA binding domain, 19 PTCs of which six render the transcript subject to nonsense-mediated decay (NMD), and five larger deletions in a total of 77 patients. We have reviewed the clinical features of these patients, and found that digital anomalies, e.g., brachymesophalangy and toe syndactyly, are the most consistent features, present in 100% and 97% of the patients, respectively. Small head circumference was present in 89% of the cases. Gastrointestinal atresia remains the most important major congenital anomaly (55%), but cardiac and renal anomalies are also frequent. We suggest that the presence of brachymesophalangy and toe syndactyly in combination with microcephaly is enough to justify MYCN analysis.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract During early and late embryo neurodevelopment, a large number of molecules work together in a spatial and temporal manner to ensure the adequate formation of an organism. Diverse signals participate in embryo patterning and organization synchronized by time and space. Among the molecules that are expressed in a temporal and spatial manner, and that are considered essential in several developmental processes, are the microRNAs (miRNAs). In this review, we highlight some important aspects of the biogenesis and function of miRNAs as well as their participation in ectoderm commitment and their role in central nervous system (CNS) development. Instead of giving an extensive list of miRNAs involved in these processes, we only mention those miRNAs that are the most studied during the development of the CNS as well as the most likely mRNA targets for each miRNA and its protein functions.Reviews in the neurosciences 06/2014; 25(5). DOI:10.1515/revneuro-2014-0014 · 3.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: ZNF630 is a member of the primate-specific Xp11 zinc finger gene cluster that consists of six closely related genes, of which ZNF41, ZNF81, and ZNF674 have been shown to be involved in mental retardation. This suggests that mutations of ZNF630 might influence cognitive function. Here, we detected 12 ZNF630 deletions in a total of 1,562 male patients with mental retardation from Brazil, USA, Australia, and Europe. The breakpoints were analyzed in 10 families, and in all cases they were located within two segmental duplications that share more than 99% sequence identity, indicating that the deletions resulted from non-allelic homologous recombination. In 2,121 healthy male controls, 10 ZNF630 deletions were identified. In total, there was a 1.6-fold higher frequency of this deletion in males with mental retardation as compared to controls, but this increase was not statistically significant (P-value = 0.174). Conversely, a 1.9-fold lower frequency of ZNF630 duplications was observed in patients, which was not significant either (P-value = 0.163). These data do not show that ZNF630 deletions or duplications are associated with mental retardation.American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 03/2010; 152A(3):638-45. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.33292 · 2.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disease with complex etiology, affecting approximately 1% of the general population. Most genetics studies so far have focused on disease association with common genetic variation, such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), but it has recently become apparent that large-scale genomic copy-number variants (CNVs) are involved in disease development as well. To assess the role of rare CNVs in schizophrenia, we screened 54 patients with deficit schizophrenia using Affymetrix's GeneChip 250K SNP arrays. We identified 90 CNVs in total, 77 of which have been reported previously in unaffected control cohorts. Among the genes disrupted by the remaining rare CNVs are MYT1L, CTNND2, NRXN1, and ASTN2, genes that play an important role in neuronal functioning but--except for NRXN1--have not been associated with schizophrenia before. We studied the occurrence of CNVs at these four loci in an additional cohort of 752 patients and 706 normal controls from The Netherlands. We identified eight additional CNVs, of which the four that affect coding sequences were found only in the patient cohort. Our study supports a role for rare CNVs in schizophrenia susceptibility and identifies at least three candidate genes for this complex disorder.The American Journal of Human Genetics 11/2008; 83(4):504-10. DOI:10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.09.011 · 10.99 Impact Factor