The roles of surface chemistry and topography in the strength and rate of osseointegration of titanium implants in bone.
ABSTRACT The present study investigated the effects of surface chemistry and topography on the strength and rate of osseointegration of titanium implants in bone. Three groups of implants were compared: (1) machine-turned implants (turned implants), (2) machine-turned and aluminum oxide-blasted implants (blasted implants), and (3) implants that were machine-turned, aluminum oxide-blasted, and processed with the micro-arc oxidation method (Mg implants). Three and six weeks after implant insertion in rabbit tibiae, the implant osseointegration strength and rate were evaluated. Surface chemistry revealed characteristic differences of nine at.% Mg for Mg implants and 11 at.% Al for blasted implants. In terms of surface roughness, there was no difference between Mg implants and blasted implants in developed surface ratio (Sdr; p = 0.69) or summit density (Sds; p = 0.96), but Mg implants had a significantly lower arithmetic average height deviation (Sa) value than blasted implants (p = 0.007). At both 3 and 6 weeks, Mg implants demonstrated significantly higher osseointegration strength compared with turned (p = 0.0001, p = 0.0001) and blasted (p = 0.0001, p = 0.035) implants, whereas blasted implants showed significantly higher osseointegration than turned implants at 6 weeks (p = 0.02) but not at 3 weeks (p = 0.199). The present results not only support the hypothesis that biochemical bonding facilitates rapid and strong integration of implants in bone, but also provide evidence for biochemical bonding theory previously proposed by Sul.
Article: Early healing events around titanium implant devices with different surface microtopography: a pilot study in an in vivo rabbit model.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In the present pilot study, the authors morphologically investigated sandblasted, acid-etched surfaces (SLA) at very early experimental times. The tested devices were titanium plate-like implants with flattened wide lateral sides and jagged narrow sides. Because of these implant shape and placement site, the device gained a firm mechanical stability but the largest portion of the implant surface lacked direct contact with host bone and faced a wide peri-implant space rich in marrow tissue, intentionally created in order to study the interfacial interaction between metal surface and biological microenvironment. The insertion of titanium devices into the proximal tibia elicited a sequence of healing events. Newly formed bone proceeded through an early distance osteogenesis, common to both surfaces, and a delayed contact osteogenesis which seemed to follow different patterns at the two surfaces. In fact, SLA devices showed a more osteoconductive behavior retaining a less dense blood clot, which might be earlier and more easily replaced, and leading to a surface-conditioning layer which promotes osteogenic cell differentiation and appositional new bone deposition at the titanium surface. This model system is expected to provide a starting point for further investigations which clarify the early cellular and biomolecular events occurring at the metal surface.TheScientificWorldJOURNAL 01/2012; 2012:349842. · 1.66 Impact Factor
Article: Effect of titanium implant surface nanoroughness and calcium phosphate low impregnation on bone cell activity in vitro.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In the field of bone implant surfaces, the effects of nanoscale modifications have received significant attention. In the present study, bone cell activity on 2 implant surfaces with similar microtopography but distinct chemistry and nanotopography (sandblasted/acid-etched surface as control group, and calcium phosphate (CaP) low impregnated surface (Ossean) as test group, both from Intra-Lock, Boca Raton, FL) were evaluated. The 2 surfaces were characterized by X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) up to x200,000 magnification. The micrometer level roughness profiles were evaluated by means of computer software. Cell adhesion, proliferation, and alkaline phosphatase activity were assessed with human SaOS-2 osteoblasts and bone mesenchymal stem cells in nonosteogenic culture conditions. The XPS and SEM results showed that the Ossean surface presented low levels of CaP impregnation within the titanium oxide layer and texturization at the nanometer scale (nanoroughness) compared with the control surface. Moreover Ossean surface induced significantly higher cell differentiation levels than the control (P < .01). This study showed that both homogeneous nanoroughness and CaP low impregnation differently affected in vitro bone cell behavior compared with the control moderately rough surface with less texturing in the nanometer scale. However, the relative importance of nanotopography and surface chemistry in cell reactions is yet to be determined.Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics 02/2010; 109(2):217-24. · 1.50 Impact Factor
Article: The effect of fluoride surface modification of ceramic TiO2 on the surface properties and biological response of osteoblastic cells in vitro.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study investigates the effect of fluoride surface modification on the surface properties of polycrystalline ceramic TiO(2) and the biological response of murine osteoblast cells to fluoride-modified TiO(2) in vitro. Fluoride concentrations up to 9 at.% were detected and the fluoride was found to bind to the surface in a ligand exchange reaction between surface hydroxyl groups and the fluoride anions from the HF. No significant changes in the surface topography were detected. In vitro experiments were performed in order to evaluate the biological response of the MC3T3-E1 cells to the fluoride-modified ceramic TiO(2) surfaces. No difference in the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was seen in comparison to unmodified samples, apart from the highest fluoride concentration (∼9 at.%) which was found to be more toxic to the cells. Real-time PCR analysis showed no conclusive evidence for the fluoride-induced promotion of osteoblast differentiation as no significant increase in the collagen-1, osteocalcin, or BMP-2 mRNA levels was detected on the fluoride-modified ceramic TiO(2) surfaces apart from one group, which showed an elevated osteocalcin level and higher number of cells. Since the observed grain boundary corrosion is also anticipated to reduce the mechanical properties of ceramic TiO(2), this surface modification method may not be an ideal method for improving the osteogenic response of ceramic TiO(2) scaffolds.Biomedical Materials 06/2011; 6(4):045006. · 2.16 Impact Factor