Developments on drug delivery systems for the treatment of mycobacterial infections.
ABSTRACT The clinical management of tuberculosis and other mycobacterial diseases with antimycobacterial chemotherapy remains a difficult task. The classical treatment protocols are long-lasting; the drugs reach mycobacteria-infected macrophages in low amounts and/or do not persist long enough to develop the desired antimycobacterial effect; and the available agents induce severe toxic effects. Nanotechnology has provided a huge improvement to pharmacology through the designing of drug delivery systems able to target phagocytic cells infected by intracellular pathogens, such as mycobacteria. Liposomes and nanoparticles of polymeric nature represent two of the most efficient drug carrier systems that after in vivo administration are endocytosed by phagocytic cells and then release the carried agents into these cells. This article reviews the relevant publications describing the effectiveness of the association of antimycobacterial agents with liposomes or nanoparticles for the treatment of mycobacterioses, particularly for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. avium infections. The increased therapeutic index of antimycobacterial drugs; the reduction of dosing frequency; and the improvement of solubility of hydrophobic agents, allowing the administration of higher doses, have been demonstrated in experimental infections. These advantages may lead to new therapeutic protocols that will improve patient compliance and, consequently, lead to a more successful control of mycobacterial infections. The potential therapeutic advantages resulting from the use of non-invasive administration routes for nanoparticulate systems are also discussed.
Article: New old challenges in tuberculosis: potentially effective nanotechnologies in drug delivery.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis (TB) is the second most deadly infectious disease. Despite potentially curative pharmacotherapies being available for over 50 years, the length of the treatment and the pill burden can hamper patient lifestyle. Thus, low compliance and adherence to administration schedules remain the main reasons for therapeutic failure and contribute to the development of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) strains. Pediatric patients constitute a high risk population. Most of the first-line drugs are not commercially available in pediatric form. The design of novel antibiotics attempts to overcome drug resistance, to shorten the treatment course and to reduce drug interactions with antiretroviral therapies. On the other hand, the existing anti-TB drugs are still effective. Overcoming technological drawbacks of these therapeutic agents as well as improving the effectiveness of the drug by targeting the infection reservoirs remains the central aims of Pharmaceutical Technology. In this framework, nanotechnologies appear as one of the most promising approaches for the development of more effective and compliant medicines. The present review thoroughly overviews the state-of-the-art in the development of nano-based drug delivery systems for encapsulation and release of anti-TB drugs and discusses the challenges that are faced in the development of a more effective, compliant and also affordable TB pharmacotherapy.Advanced drug delivery reviews 11/2009; 62(4-5):547-59. · 11.96 Impact Factor