Physician responses to a community-level trial promoting judicious antibiotic use
ABSTRACT In an environment of multiple campaigns promoting judicious antibiotic use in children, identification of effective strategies is important. We assessed physician responses to a community-level intervention with respect to antibiotic prescribing, related practices, and perceived effectiveness.
This study was a mixed qualitative and quantitative evaluation of a randomized controlled community-wide educational intervention in 16 Massachusetts communities. Physicians in intervention communities received locally endorsed guidelines, group educational sessions, and biweekly newsletters. Parents simultaneously received materials in physicians' offices and by mail. After the intervention, we conducted a mailed physician survey and individual interviews to assess the impact of the intervention. We compared survey responses for intervention and control physicians, and we analyzed interview transcripts to provide in-depth information about selected topics.
Among survey respondents (n = 168), 91% of intervention and 4% of control physicians reported receiving intervention materials. Physicians received information from multiple other sources. More intervention than control physicians reported decreased antibiotic prescribing from 2000-2003 (75% vs 58%, P = .03), but there were no differences between groups in knowledge, attitudes, or behaviors favoring judicious antibiotic use. Both groups were concerned about antibiotic resistance and reported room to reduce their own prescribing. Interviewed physicians suggested frequent repetition of messages, brief written materials on specific topics for themselves and patients, and promotion in the mass media as the most effective strategies to reduce prescribing.
In multiple communities an intervention in physician offices to promote judicious antibiotic prescribing reached its intended audience, but physicians' self-reported attitudes and practices were similar in intervention and control communities. Campaigns that repeat brief, consistent reminders to multiple stakeholder groups may be most effective at assuring judicious antibiotic use.
SourceAvailable from: Dimitri M Drekonja[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Evaluate the effect of outpatient antimicrobial stewardship programs on prescribing, patient, microbial outcomes, and costs. Systematic review Search of MEDLINE (2000 through November 2013), Cochrane Library, and reference lists of relevant studies. We included English language studies with patient populations relevant to the United States (eg, infectious conditions, prescription services) evaluating stewardship programs in outpatient settings and reporting outcomes of interest. Data regarding study characteristics and outcomes were extracted and organized by intervention type. We identified 50 studies eligible for inclusion, with most (29 of 50; 58%) reporting on respiratory tract infections, followed by multiple/unspecified infections (17 of 50; 34%). We found medium-strength evidence that stewardship programs incorporating communication skills training and laboratory testing are associated with reductions in antimicrobial use, and low-strength evidence that other stewardship interventions are associated with improved prescribing. Patient-centered outcomes, which were infrequently reported, were not adversely affected. Medication costs were generally lower with stewardship interventions, but overall program costs were rarely reported. No studies reported microbial outcomes, and data regarding outpatient settings other than primary care clinics are limited. Low- to moderate-strength evidence suggests that antimicrobial stewardship programs in outpatient settings improve antimicrobial prescribing without adversely effecting patient outcomes. Effectiveness depends on program type. Most studies were not designed to measure patient or resistance outcomes. Data regarding sustainability and scalability of interventions are limited. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2014;00(0):1-11.Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 02/2015; 36(2):142-52. DOI:10.1017/ice.2014.41 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria are either highly prevalent or increasing rapidly in Hong Kong and China. Treatment options for these bacteria are generally limited, less effective and more expensive. The emergence and dynamics of antimicrobial resistance genes in bacteria circulating between animals, the environment and humans are not entirely known. Nonetheless, selective pressure by antibiotics on the microbiomes of animal and human, and their associated environments (especially farms and healthcare institutions), sewage systems and soil are likely to confer survival advantages upon bacteria with antimicrobial-resistance genes, which may be further disseminated through plasmids or transposons with integrons. Therefore, antibiotic use must be tightly regulated to eliminate such selective pressure, including the illegalization of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feed and regulation of antibiotic use in veterinary practice and human medicine. Heightened awareness of infection control measures to reduce the risk of acquiring resistant bacteria is essential, especially during antimicrobial use or institutionalization in healthcare facilities. The transmission cycle must be interrupted by proper hand hygiene, environmental cleaning, avoidance of undercooked or raw food and compliance with infection control measures by healthcare workers, visitors and patients, especially during treatment with antibiotics. In addition to these routine measures, proactive microbiological screening of hospitalized patients with risk factors for carrying resistant bacteria, including history of travel to endemic countries, transfer from other hospitals, and prolonged hospitalization; directly observed hand hygiene before oral intake of drugs, food and drinks; and targeted disinfection of high-touch or mutual-touch items, such as bed rails and bed curtains, are important. Transparency of surveillance data from each institute for public scrutiny provides an incentive for controlling antimicrobial resistance in healthcare settings at an administrative level.02/2015; 4(2). DOI:10.1038/emi.2015.8
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ABSTRACT: Excessive and inappropriate antibiotic use contributes to growing antibiotic resistance, an important public-health problem. Strategies must be developed to improve antibiotic-prescribing. Our purpose is to review of educational programs aimed at improving antibiotic-prescribing by physicians and/or antibiotic-dispensing by pharmacists, in both primary-care and hospital settings. We conducted a critical systematic search and review of the relevant literature on educational programs aimed at improving antibiotic prescribing and dispensing practice in primary-care and hospital settings, published in January 2001 through December 2011. We identified 78 studies for analysis, 47 in primary-care and 31 in hospital settings. The studies differed widely in design but mostly reported positive results. Outcomes measured in the reviewed studies were adherence to guidelines, total of antibiotics prescribed, or both, attitudes and behavior related to antibiotic prescribing and quality of pharmacy practice related to antibiotics. Twenty-nine studies (62%) in primary care and twenty-four (78%) in hospital setting reported positive results for all measured outcomes; fourteen studies (30%) in primary care and six (20%) in hospital setting reported positive results for some outcomes and results that were not statistically influenced by the intervention for others; only four studies in primary care and one study in hospital setting failed to report significant post-intervention improvements for all outcomes. Improvement in adherence to guidelines and decrease of total of antibiotics prescribed, after educational interventions, were observed, respectively, in 46% and 41% of all the reviewed studies. Changes in behaviour related to antibiotic-prescribing and improvement in quality of pharmacy practice was observed, respectively, in four studies and one study respectively. The results show that antibiotic use could be improved by educational interventions, being mostly used multifaceted interventions.BMC Public Health 12/2014; 14(1):1276. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-1276 · 2.32 Impact Factor