Myosin regulatory light chain phosphorylation attenuates cardiac hypertrophy
ABSTRACT Hyperphosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) in cardiac muscle is proposed to cause compensatory hypertrophy. We therefore investigated potential mechanisms in genetically modified mice. Transgenic (TG) mice were generated to overexpress Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain kinase specifically in cardiomyocytes. Phosphorylation of sarcomeric cardiac RLC and cytoplasmic nonmuscle RLC increased markedly in hearts from TG mice compared with hearts from wild-type (WT) mice. Quantitative measures of RLC phosphorylation revealed no spatial gradients. No significant hypertrophy or structural abnormalities were observed up to 6 months of age in hearts of TG mice compared with WT animals. Hearts and cardiomyocytes from WT animals subjected to voluntary running exercise and isoproterenol treatment showed hypertrophic cardiac responses, but the responses for TG mice were attenuated. Additional biochemical measurements indicated that overexpression of the Ca2+/calmodulin-binding kinase did not perturb other Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent processes involving Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II or the protein phosphatase calcineurin. Thus, increased myosin RLC phosphorylation per se does not cause cardiac hypertrophy and probably inhibits physiological and pathophysiological hypertrophy by contributing to enhanced contractile performance and efficiency.
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ABSTRACT: We have examined, for the first time, the effects of the familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)- associated Lys104Glu mutation in the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC). Transgenic mice expressing the Lys104Glu substitution (Tg-MUT) were generated and the results compared to Tg-WT (wild-type human ventricular RLC) mice. Echocardiography with pulse wave Doppler in 6month-old Tg-MUT showed early signs of diastolic disturbance with significantly reduced E/A transmitral velocities ratio. Invasive hemodynamics in 6month-old Tg-MUT mice also demonstrated a borderline significant prolonged isovolumic relaxation time (Tau) and a tendency for slower rate of pressure decline, suggesting alterations in diastolic function in Tg-MUT. Six month-old mutant animals had no LV hypertrophy; however, at >13months they displayed significant hypertrophy and fibrosis. In skinned papillary muscles from 5-6 month-old mice a mutation induced reduction in maximal tension and slower muscle relaxation rates were observed. Mutated cross-bridges showed increased rates of binding to the thin filaments and a faster rate of the power stroke. In addition, ~2-fold lower level of RLC phosphorylation was observed in the mutant compared to Tg-WT. In line with the higher mitochondrial content seen in Tg-MUT hearts, the MUT-myosin ATPase activity was significantly higher than WT-myosin, indicating increased energy consumption. In the in vitro motility assay, MUT-myosin produced higher actin sliding velocity under zero load, but the velocity drastically decreased with applied load in the MUT vs. WT myosin. Our results suggest that diastolic disturbance (impaired muscle relaxation, lower E/A) and inefficiency of energy use (reduced contractile force and faster ATP consumption) may underlie the Lys104Glu-mediated HCM phenotype.Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 06/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.yjmcc.2014.06.011 · 5.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Thin (actin) filament accessory proteins are thought to be the regulatory force for muscle contraction in cardiac muscle; however, compelling new evidence suggests that thick (myosin) filament regulatory proteins are emerging as having independent and important roles in regulating cardiac muscle contraction. Key to these new findings is a growing body of evidence that point to an influential and, more recently, direct role for ventricular myosin light chain-2 (MLC2v) phosphorylation in regulating cardiac muscle contraction, function, and disease. This includes the discovery and characterization of a cardiac-specific myosin light chain kinase capable of phosphorylating MLC2v as well as a myosin phosphatase that dephosphorylates MLC2v in the heart, which provides added mechanistic insights on MLC2v regulation within cardiac muscle. Here, we review evidence for an emerging and critical role for MLC2v phosphorylation in regulating cardiac myosin cycling kinetics, function, and disease, based on recent studies performed in genetic mouse models and humans. We further provide new perspectives on future avenues for targeting these pathways as therapies in alleviating cardiac disease.Trends in cardiovascular medicine 08/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.tcm.2013.07.004 · 2.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PKA signaling is important for the modification of the post-translational phosphorylation of proteins, especially those in cardiomyocytes involved in cardiac excitation-contraction coupling. PKA activity is spatially and temporally regulated through compartmentalization by A-kinase anchoring proteins. Cypher/ZASP, a member of PDZ-LIM domain protein family, is a cytoskeletal protein that forms multiple-protein complexes at sarcomeric Z-lines. It has been demonstrated that Cypher/ZASP plays a pivotal structural role in the integrity of sarcomeres, and several of its mutations are associated with myopathies such as dilated cardiomyopathy. Here we show Cypher/ZASP, interacting specifically with the type II regulatory subunit RIIα of PKA, acted as a typical A-kinase anchoring protein. In addition, we show Cypher/ZASP itself was phosphorylated at Ser265 and Ser296 by PKA. Furthermore, the PDZ domain of Cypher/ZASP interacted with the L-type calcium channel through its C-terminal PDZ binding motifs. Expression of Cypher/ZASP facilitated PKA-mediated phosphorylation of the L-type calcium channel in vitro. Additionally, the phosphorylation of the L-type calcium channel at Ser1928 induced by isoproterenol was impaired in neonatal Cypher/ZASP-null cardiomyocytes. Moreover, Cypher/ZASP interacted with the Ser/Thr phosphatase Calcineurin which is a phosphatase for the L-type calcium channel. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that Cypher/ZASP not only plays a structural role at sarcomeric integrity, but is also an important sarcomeric signaling scaffold in regulating the phosphorylation of channels or contractile proteins.Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2013; DOI:10.1074/jbc.M113.470708 · 4.60 Impact Factor