Evaluation of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality pediatric quality indicators
ABSTRACT Pediatric quality indicators were developed in 2006 by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality to identify potentially preventable complications in hospitalized children. Our objectives for this study were to (1) apply these algorithms to an aggregate children's hospital's discharge abstract database, (2) establish rates for each of the pediatric quality indicator events in the children's hospitals, (3) use direct chart review to investigate the accuracy of the pediatric quality indicators, (4) calculate the number of complications that were already present on admission and, therefore, not attributable to the specific hospitalization, and (5) evaluate preventability and calculate positive predictive value for each of the indicators. In addition, we wanted to use the data to set priorities for ongoing clinical investigation.
The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality pediatric quality indicator algorithms were applied to 76 children's hospital's discharge abstract data (1794675 discharges) from 2003 to 2005. Rates were calculated for 11 of the pediatric quality indicators from all 3 years of discharge data: accidental puncture or laceration, decubitus ulcer, foreign body left in during a procedure, iatrogenic pneumothorax in neonates at risk, iatrogenic pneumothorax in nonneonates, postoperative hemorrhage or hematoma, postoperative respiratory failure, postoperative sepsis, postoperative wound dehiscence, selected infections caused by medical care, and transfusion reaction. Subsequently, clinicians from 28 children's hospitals reviewed 1703 charts in which complications had been identified. They answered questions as to correctness of secondary diagnoses that were associated with the indicator, whether a complication was already present on admission, and whether that complication was preventable, nonpreventable, or uncertain.
Across 3 years of data the rates of pediatric quality indicators ranged from a low of 0.01/1000 discharges for transfusion reaction to a high of 35/1000 for postoperative respiratory failure, with a median value of 1.85/1000 for the 11 pediatric quality indicators. Indicators were often already present on admission and ranged from 43% for infection caused by medical care to 0% for iatrogenic pneumothorax in neonates, with a median value of 16.9%. Positive predictive value for the subset of pediatric quality indicators occurring after admission was highest for decubitus ulcer (51%) and infection caused by medical care (40%). Because of the very large numbers of cases identified and its low preventability, the indicator postoperative respiratory failure is particularly problematic. The initial definition includes all children on ventilators postoperatively for >4 days with few exclusions. Being on a ventilator for 4 days would be a normal occurrence for many children with extensive surgery; therefore, the majority of the time does not indicate a complication and makes the indicator inappropriate.
A subset of pediatric quality indicators derived from administrative data are reasonable screening tools to help hospitals prioritize chart review and subsequent improvement projects. However, in their present form, true preventability of these complications is relatively low; therefore, the indicators are not useful for public hospital comparison. Identifying which complications are present on admission versus those that occur within the hospitalization will be essential, along with adequate risk adjustment, for any valid comparison between institutions. Infection caused by medical care and decubitus ulcers are clinically important indicators once the present-on-admission status is determined. These complications cause significant morbidity in hospitalized children, and research has shown a high level of preventability. The pediatric quality indicator software can help children's hospitals objectively review their cases and target improvement activities appropriately. The postoperative-respiratory-failure indicator does not represent a complication in the majority of cases and, therefore, should not be included for hospital screening or public comparison. Chart review should become part of the development process for quality indicators to avoid inappropriate conclusions that misdirect quality-improvement resources.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: State governments increasingly mandate public reporting of central line-associated blood stream infections (CLABSIs). This study tests if hospitals located in states with state-mandated, facility-identified, pediatric-specific public CLABSI reporting have lower rates of CLABSIs as defined by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's Pediatric Quality Indicator 12 (PDI12). Utilizing the Kids' Inpatient Databases from 2000 to 2009, we compared changes in PDI12 rates across three groups of states: states with public CLABSI reporting begun by 2006, states with public reporting begun by 2009 and never-reporting states. In the baseline period (2000-2003), no states mandated public CLABSI reporting. A multivariable, hospital-level random intercept, logistic regression was performed comparing changes in PDI12 rates in states with public reporting to changes in PDI12 rates in never-reporting states. 4,705,857 discharge records were eligible for PDI12. PDI12 rates significantly decreased in all reporting groups, comparing baseline to the post-public reporting period (2009): Never Reporters 88% decrease (95% CI, 86%-89%), Reporting Begun by 2006 90% decrease (95% CI, 83%-94%), and Reporting Begun by 2009 74% decrease (95% CI, 72%-76%). The Never Reporting Group had comparable decreases in PDI12 rates to the Reporting Begun by 2006 group (P = 0.4) and significantly larger decreases in PDI12 rates compared to the Reporting Begun by 2009 group (P < 0.001), despite having no states with public reporting. Public CLABSI reporting alone appears to be insufficient to affect administrative data-based measures of pediatric CLABSI rates or children may be inadequately targeted in current public reporting efforts.Journal of Patient Safety 03/2014; DOI:10.1097/PTS.0000000000000056 · 0.88 Impact Factor
- Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 01/2012; 21:1-303. DOI:10.1002/pds.3230 · 3.17 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: La presente Guía de Práctica Clínica (GPC) trata de responder a la pregunta sobre cuáles son las intervenciones preventivas o terapéuticas disponibles para el cuidado de las personas con úlceras por presión (UPP) o en riesgo de padecerlas. Se dirige a los profesionales sanitarios (principalmente de enfermería) en contacto con las personas con UPP o en riesgo de padecerlas, en cualquiera de los tres niveles de asistencia sanitaria de la Comunitat Valenciana (esto es, Atención Primaria de Salud, Atención Especializada o Servicios Sociosanitarios). Se plantea como mecanismo para reducir la variabilidad en la práctica clínica y el establecimiento de estándares de cuidados, así como para erigirse en un documento de consulta a la hora de gestionar los recursos en base al grado de evidencia de las recomendaciones, lo que supone una mayor eficiencia.01/2013; Conselleria de Sanitat.