Pediatric quality indicators were developed in 2006 by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality to identify potentially preventable complications in hospitalized children. Our objectives for this study were to (1) apply these algorithms to an aggregate children's hospital's discharge abstract database, (2) establish rates for each of the pediatric quality indicator events in the children's hospitals, (3) use direct chart review to investigate the accuracy of the pediatric quality indicators, (4) calculate the number of complications that were already present on admission and, therefore, not attributable to the specific hospitalization, and (5) evaluate preventability and calculate positive predictive value for each of the indicators. In addition, we wanted to use the data to set priorities for ongoing clinical investigation.
The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality pediatric quality indicator algorithms were applied to 76 children's hospital's discharge abstract data (1794675 discharges) from 2003 to 2005. Rates were calculated for 11 of the pediatric quality indicators from all 3 years of discharge data: accidental puncture or laceration, decubitus ulcer, foreign body left in during a procedure, iatrogenic pneumothorax in neonates at risk, iatrogenic pneumothorax in nonneonates, postoperative hemorrhage or hematoma, postoperative respiratory failure, postoperative sepsis, postoperative wound dehiscence, selected infections caused by medical care, and transfusion reaction. Subsequently, clinicians from 28 children's hospitals reviewed 1703 charts in which complications had been identified. They answered questions as to correctness of secondary diagnoses that were associated with the indicator, whether a complication was already present on admission, and whether that complication was preventable, nonpreventable, or uncertain.
Across 3 years of data the rates of pediatric quality indicators ranged from a low of 0.01/1000 discharges for transfusion reaction to a high of 35/1000 for postoperative respiratory failure, with a median value of 1.85/1000 for the 11 pediatric quality indicators. Indicators were often already present on admission and ranged from 43% for infection caused by medical care to 0% for iatrogenic pneumothorax in neonates, with a median value of 16.9%. Positive predictive value for the subset of pediatric quality indicators occurring after admission was highest for decubitus ulcer (51%) and infection caused by medical care (40%). Because of the very large numbers of cases identified and its low preventability, the indicator postoperative respiratory failure is particularly problematic. The initial definition includes all children on ventilators postoperatively for >4 days with few exclusions. Being on a ventilator for 4 days would be a normal occurrence for many children with extensive surgery; therefore, the majority of the time does not indicate a complication and makes the indicator inappropriate.
A subset of pediatric quality indicators derived from administrative data are reasonable screening tools to help hospitals prioritize chart review and subsequent improvement projects. However, in their present form, true preventability of these complications is relatively low; therefore, the indicators are not useful for public hospital comparison. Identifying which complications are present on admission versus those that occur within the hospitalization will be essential, along with adequate risk adjustment, for any valid comparison between institutions. Infection caused by medical care and decubitus ulcers are clinically important indicators once the present-on-admission status is determined. These complications cause significant morbidity in hospitalized children, and research has shown a high level of preventability. The pediatric quality indicator software can help children's hospitals objectively review their cases and target improvement activities appropriately. The postoperative-respiratory-failure indicator does not represent a complication in the majority of cases and, therefore, should not be included for hospital screening or public comparison. Chart review should become part of the development process for quality indicators to avoid inappropriate conclusions that misdirect quality-improvement resources.
"The rates found in this study for pressure ulcer, FTR and infectious disease are lower than those reported in other studies [40,45-49]. The administrative hospital data used to identify rates of pressure ulcer and FTR in these other studies was not linked when identifying records with nursing-sensitive outcomes of pressure ulcer and FTR which may account for their higher rates; however adjustments were made for comorbidities [40,45-48]. Since the reporting of rates of hospital acquired infectious diseases in an Australian point prevalence study , the national immunisation schedule has increased the range of vaccines freely available to Australians. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Research into nursing-sensitive outcomes using administrative health data has focussed on hospitalised adults. However, we developed algorithms for the identification of 13 paediatric nursing-sensitive outcomes, which we seek to examine for clinical utility. The aims were to determine the rates of paediatric nursing-sensitive outcomes in a Western Australian hospital and ascertain sociodemographic and clinical characteristics associated with a greater risk of developing nursing-sensitive outcomes in hospitalised children.
A retrospective cohort study used linked administrative data of all Western Australian children <=18 years admitted to the only tertiary paediatric hospital in Perth between 1999 and 2009. Rates per 1,000 hospital separations and per 10,000 patient days were calculated for the following nursing-sensitive outcomes: lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), gastrointestinal (GI) infection, pneumonia, sepsis, arrest/shock/respiratory failure, central nervous system complication, central venous line infection, infectious disease, pressure ulcer, failure to rescue, surgical wound infection, physiologic/metabolic derangement, and postoperative cardiopulmonary complications. Poisson multiple regression models were fitted to estimate rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for suspected risk factors.
Linked records of 129,719 hospital separations were analysed. Rates ranged from 0.5/1,000 for pressure ulcer to 14.0/1,000 hospital separations for GI infections. Age was significantly associated with the risk of a nursing-sensitive outcome: compared with adolescents, toddlers had greater risk of GI infection (RR 9.89; 95% CI 6.24, 15.69); infants had 7.74 times greater risk of LRTI (95% CI 5.11, 11.75), while neonates had lower risks for sepsis (RR 0.26; 95% CI 0.08, 0.90) and physiologic/metabolic derangement (RR 0.12; 95% CI 0.04, 0.35). The risk of surgical wound infection was 7.78 times greater (95% CI 5.10, 11.86) for emergency admissions than elective admissions.
Seven of the 13 defined nursing-sensitive outcomes occurred with sufficient frequency (>100 events over the 10 year study period) to be potentially useful for monitoring the quality of nursing care. These nursing-sensitive outcomes are: LRTI, GI infection, pneumonia, surgical wound infection, physiologic/metabolic derangement, sepsis and postoperative cardiopulmonary complications. When used for quality improvement or to benchmark with other agencies, data need to be adjusted for, or stratified by age and admission type, to ensure equitable comparisons.
BMC Health Services Research 10/2013; 13(1):396. DOI:10.1186/1472-6963-13-396 · 1.71 Impact Factor
"The median length of stay in hospitals and associated costs has decreased, and behaviours pertaining to the use of healthcare services have changed (Forgione et al. 2004; Mutter, Rosko & Wong 2008). Researchers suggested that the quality of healthcare would improve with the implementation of DRGs, but findings have been mixed (Forgione et al. 2004; Matthew et al. 2008; Ferraz-Nunes 2001; Ballard 2003). Nevertheless, the application of DRGs was expanded to the performance assessment of healthcare services after their introduction in European countries, and DRGs have become the basis for economic comparisons among hospitals (Roger 1988). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to build a healthcare quality assessment system with disease category as the basic unit of assessment based on the principles of case classification, and to assess the quality of care in a large hospital in Shanghai. Using the Delphi method, four quality indicators were selected. The data of 124,125 patients discharged from a large general hospital in Shanghai, from October 1, 2004 to September 30, 2007, were used to establish quality indicators estimates for each disease. The data of 51,760 discharged patients from October 1, 2007 to September 30, 2008 were used as the testing sample, and the standard scores of each quality indicator for each clinical department were calculated. Then the total score of various clinical departments in the hospital was calculated based on the differences between the practical scores and the standard. Based on quality assessment scores, we found that the quality of healthcare in departments of thyroid and mammary gland surgery, obstetrics and gynaecology, stomatology, dermatology, and paediatrics was better than in other departments. Implementation of the case classifi cation for healthcare quality assessment permitted the comparison of quality among different healthcare departments.
The HIM journal 06/2012; 41(2):22-9. · 1.15 Impact Factor
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