Construction and evaluation of a Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 whole-genome oligonucleotide microarray.
ABSTRACT Clostridium thermocellum is an anaerobic, thermophilic bacterium that can directly convert cellulosic substrates into ethanol. Microarray technology is a powerful tool to gain insights into cellular processes by examining gene expression under various physiological states. Oligonucleotide microarray probes were designed for 96.7% of the 3163 C. thermocellum ATCC 27405 candidate protein-encoding genes and then a partial-genome microarray containing 70 C. thermocellum specific probes was constructed and evaluated. We detected a signal-to-noise ratio of three with as little as 1.0 ng of genomic DNA and only low signals from negative control probes (nonclostridial DNA), indicating the probes were sensitive and specific. In order to further test the specificity of the array we amplified and hybridized 10 C. thermocellum polymerase chain reaction products that represented different genes and found gene specific hybridization in each case. We also constructed a whole-genome microarray and prepared total cellular RNA from the same point in early-logarithmic growth phase from two technical replicates during cellobiose fermentation. The reliability of the microarray data was assessed by cohybridization of labeled complementary DNA from the cellobiose fermentation samples and the pattern of hybridization revealed a linear correlation. These results taken together suggest that our oligonucleotide probe set can be used for sensitive and specific C. thermocellum transcriptomic studies in the future.
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ABSTRACT: DNA array and Western analyses were used to examine the effects of groESL overexpression and host-plasmid interactions on solvent production in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Strain 824(pGROE1) was created to overexpress the groESL operon genes from a clostridial thiolase promoter. The growth of 824(pGROE1) was inhibited up to 85% less by a butanol challenge than that of the control strain, 824(pSOS95del). Overexpression of groESL resulted in increased final solvent titers 40% and 33% higher than those of the wild type and plasmid control strains, respectively. Active metabolism lasted two and one half times longer in 824(pGROE1) than in the wild type. Transcriptional analysis of 824(pGROE1) revealed increased expression of motility and chemotaxis genes and a decrease in the expression of the other major stress response genes. Decreased expression of the dnaKJ operon upon overexpression of groESL suggests that groESL functions as a modulator of the CIRCE regulon, which is shown here to include the hsp90 gene. Analysis of the plasmid control strain 824(pSOS95del) revealed complex host-plasmid interactions relative to the wild-type strain, resulting in prolonged biphasic growth and metabolism. Decreased expression of four DNA gyrases resulted in differential expression of many key primary metabolism genes. The ftsA and ftsZ genes were expressed at higher levels in 824(pSOS95del), revealing an altered cell division and sporulation pattern. Both transcriptional and Western analyses revealed elevated stress protein expression in the plasmid-carrying strain.Applied and Environmental Microbiology 09/2003; 69(8):4951-65. · 3.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Shewanella oneidensis is an important model organism for bioremediation studies because of its diverse respiratory capabilities. However, the genetic basis and regulatory mechanisms underlying the ability of S. oneidensis to survive and adapt to various environmentally relevant stresses is poorly understood. To define this organism's molecular response to elevated growth temperatures, temporal gene expression profiles were examined in cells subjected to heat stress by using whole-genome DNA microarrays for S. oneidensis. Approximately 15% (n = 711) of the total predicted S. oneidensis genes (n = 4,648) represented on the microarray were significantly up- or downregulated (P < 0.05) over a 25-min period after shift to the heat shock temperature. As expected, the majority of the genes that showed homology to known chaperones and heat shock proteins in other organisms were highly induced. In addition, a number of predicted genes, including those encoding enzymes in glycolysis and the pentose cycle, serine proteases, transcriptional regulators (MerR, LysR, and TetR families), histidine kinases, and hypothetical proteins were induced. Genes encoding membrane proteins were differentially expressed, suggesting that cells possibly alter their membrane composition or structure in response to variations in growth temperature. A substantial number of the genes encoding ribosomal proteins displayed downregulated coexpression patterns in response to heat stress, as did genes encoding prophage and flagellar proteins. Finally, a putative regulatory site with high conservation to the Escherichia coli sigma32-binding consensus sequence was identified upstream of a number of heat-inducible genes.Journal of Bacteriology 11/2004; 186(22):7796-803. · 3.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Criteria for the design of gene-specific and group-specific oligonucleotide probes were established experimentally via an oligonucleotide array that contained perfect match (PM) and mismatch probes (50-mers and 70-mers) based upon four genes. The effects of probe-target identity, continuous stretch, mismatch position, and hybridization free energy on specificity were tested. Little hybridization was observed at a probe-target identity of < or =85% for both 50-mer and 70-mer probes. PM signal intensities (33 to 48%) were detected at a probe-target identity of 94% for 50-mer oligonucleotides and 43 to 55% for 70-mer probes at a probe-target identity of 96%. When the effects of sequence identity and continuous stretch were considered independently, a stretch probe (>15 bases) contributed an additional 9% of the PM signal intensity compared to a nonstretch probe (< or =15 bases) at the same identity level. Cross-hybridization increased as the length of continuous stretch increased. A 35-base stretch for 50-mer probes or a 50-base stretch for 70-mer probes had approximately 55% of the PM signal. Little cross-hybridization was observed for probes with a minimal binding free energy greater than -30 kcal/mol for 50-mer probes or -40 kcal/mol for 70-mer probes. Based on the experimental results, a set of criteria are suggested for the design of gene-specific and group-specific oligonucleotide probes, and the experimentally established criteria should provide valuable information for new software and algorithms for microarray-based studies.Applied and Environmental Microbiology 08/2005; 71(7):3753-60. · 3.68 Impact Factor