Male genital tract chlamydial infection: implications for pathology and infertility
ABSTRACT Chlamydia trachomatis infections are prevalent worldwide, but current research, screening, and treatment are focused on females, with the burden of disease and infertility sequelae considered to be a predominantly female problem. The prevalence of chlamydial infection, however, is similar in males and females. Furthermore, a role for this pathogen in the development of male urethritis, epididymitis, and orchitis is widely accepted. The role of Chlamydia in the development of prostatitis is controversial, but we suggest that Chlamydia is an etiological agent, with incidences of up to 39.5% reported in patients with prostatitis. Infection of the testis and prostate is implicated in a deterioration of sperm, possibly affecting fertility. Chlamydia infections also may affect male fertility by directly damaging the sperm, because sperm parameters, proportion of DNA fragmentation, and acrosome reaction capacity are impaired with chlamydial infection. Furthermore, the proportion of male partners of infertile couples with evidence of a Chlamydia infection is greater than that documented in the general population. An effect of male chlamydial infection on the fertility of the female partner also has been reported. Thus, the need for a vaccine to protect both males and females is proposed. The difficulty arises because the male reproductive tract is an immune-privileged site that can be disrupted, potentially affecting spermatogenesis, if inappropriate inflammatory responses are provoked. Examination of responses to infection in humans and in experimental animal models suggest that an immunoglobulin A-inducing vaccine will be able to target the male reproductive tract effectively while avoiding harmful inflammatory responses that may impair fertility.
SourceAvailable from: Walter Cardona MayaRevista Chilena de Obstetricia y Ginecologia 06/2014; 79(3):209-217. DOI:10.4067/S0717-75262014000300010
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ABSTRACT: The most prevalent, curable sexually important diseases are those caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) and genital mycoplasmas. An important characteristic of these infections is their ability to cause long-term sequels in upper genital tract, thus potentially affecting the reproductive health in both sexes. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), tubal factor infertility (TFI), and ectopic pregnancy (EP) are well documented complications of C. trachomatis infection in women. The role of genital mycoplasmas in development of PID, TFI, and EP requires further evaluation, but growing evidence supports a significant role for these in the pathogenesis of chorioamnionitis, premature membrane rupture, and preterm labor in pregnant woman. Both C. trachomatis and genital mycoplasmas can affect the quality of sperm and possibly influence the fertility of men. For the purpose of this paper, basic, epidemiologic, clinical, therapeutic, and public health issue of these infections were reviewed and discussed, focusing on their impact on human reproductive health.12/2014; 2014:183167. DOI:10.1155/2014/183167
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ABSTRACT: This article presents the results of a preliminary study concerning cases of Chlamydia trachomatis infections among professional soldiers in the Polish Armed Forces. Soldiers who declared casual sexual contact with women were investigated in this study regarding the transmission of chlamydial infections by sexual activity. In total, 66 healthy, sexually active professional Polish soldiers, aged between 27 and 44, who didn't report any symptoms of urogenital infection were investigated. Urine samples taken from these patients were investigated using molecular methods (Cobas TaqMan, real-time PCR) in March-April 2012 in the Military Institute of Medicine, Warsaw, Poland. In the investigated group of 66 Polish soldiers, two 33-34 year old men were asymptomatic carriers of Chlamydia trachomatis (3.0%). They confirmed having casual sexual activity without prevention with many women. In the examined group of Polish soldiers the relatively low level of chlamydial infections found may result from the use of preventive measures during sexual activity. According to the examined men, the common use of condoms is mainly connected with the fear of HIV infection. Screening tests for Chlamydia trachomatis in the Polish Armed Forces are not performed, therefore incidence rates of chlamydial infections remain unknown. The authors plan further investigations with a larger group of professional soldiers.International maritime health 09/2014; 65(3):137-41. DOI:10.5603/IMH.2014.0028