Multiple biomarker panels for cardiovascular risk assessment.
New England Journal of Medicine (Impact Factor: 54.42). 06/2008; 358(20):2172-4. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMe0801721
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ABSTRACT: Multiple biomarker panels of common, multifactorial diseases - such as cardiovascular and Alzheimer’s disease - have recently been described, facilitating the diagnosis and risk management of these diseases. In principle, a biomarker is an indicator of a biochemical feature or facet that can be used to diagnose or monitor the progress of a disease. Detection technology has been identified for possible types of biomarkers in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). We will summarize known biomarkers with the intent of cataloging the biomarkers in the aqueous humor, trabecular meshwork (TM), optic nerve, and blood in patients with POAG. To facilitate comparisons and to offer mechanistic clues, biochemical changes such as up- or downregulation of proteins that have been reported in POAG are organized into three categories: namely, extracellular matrix (ECM) changes, cytokine/signaling molecules, and aging/stress (listed respectively in Tables 82.1, 82.2, and 82.3).
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ABSTRACT: InGaAdGaAs quantum wells strained by self-assembled InAs quantum dots form quantum-well dots on a GaAs substrate. The lmewidth, intensity and spatial homogeneity of the photoluminescence peak for the quantum-well dots are improved significantly compared with the self-assembled InAs quantum dots. 02003 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (230.0250) Optoelectronics; (250.5230) Photolummescence; (160 6000) Semiconductors, including MQW 1. Introduction Self-assembled quantum dots (QD's) originated from lattice mismatch are easily formed but suffering from severe size fluctuation. Recently, strain-induced quantum-well dots (QWD's) have been obsewed in InGaAs and InGaP quantum wells (QW's) by using InP QD's as a 2-D stressor (l-31. Since the thickness of the QW's can be controlled within a subatomic layer, the size fluctuation of the strain-induced QWD's can be greatly reduced. Moreover, the interface and surface recombination rates can be significantly reduced. Since the QWD's are next to QW's, the carrier capture rate can be improved. h our present work, the photoluminescence (PL) of Irh-,26Ga074A~/GaA~ QWD's by using InAs QD's as stressors is investigated and compared with that of InAs QD's without the QW layer. The comparison shows the PL peak of the Ino26h74As/GaAs QWD's has a narrower linewidth and higher intensity than the self-assembled InAs QD's. Furthermore, the spatial homogeneities reflected by the PL peak wavelength and linewidth arc also sigruficantly improved for the In,, 2. Growth of quantum-well dots The QWD samples are grown on GaAs (001) substrates in a Riber 32 MBE system at the temperature of 500°C and growth rates of 0.23,0.28 and 0.1 ML/s for GaAs, InGaAs and InAs, respectively. The QWD structure consists of a 300 nm-thick GaAs buffer layer, 26 ML-thick Ino26C;a074A~ well, 18 ML-thick GaAs barrier, 2.5 ML-thick InAs and a 20 run-thick GaAs cap layer. Due to the large lattice mismatch between InAs and GaAs, the 2.5 &thick InAs layer actually breaks into self-assembled QD's with an average diameter and height of -10 nm and -5 nm, respectively. Each InAs QD applies a 2-D potential to the QW layer beneath it. Therefore, the strain-induced QWD's are formed. In order to compare the experimental results between QWD's and self-assembled QD's, two additional samples are grown, one of which only has the self-assemble InAs QD's and another one just has In, 2&& 74A~/GaA~ quantum well. 3. Experiment and discussions 74A~/GaA~ QWD's.
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