Phosphoinositides suppress gamma-secretase in both the detergent-soluble and -insoluble states.
ABSTRACT gamma-Secretase is an aspartic protease that hydrolyzes type I membrane proteins within the hydrophobic environment of the lipid bilayer. Using the CHAPSO-solubilized gamma-secretase assay system, we previously found that gamma-secretase activity was sensitive to the concentrations of detergent and phosphatidylcholine. This strongly suggests that the composition of the lipid bilayer has a significant impact on the activity of gamma-secretase. Recently, level of secreted beta-amyloid protein was reported to be attenuated by increasing levels of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-diphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) in cultured cells. However, it is not clear whether PI(4,5)P2 has a direct effect on gamma-secretase activity. In this study, we found that phosphoinositides directly inhibited CHAPSO-solubilized gamma-secretase activity. Interestingly, neither phosphatidylinositol nor inositol triphosphate altered gamma-secretase activity. PI(4,5)P2 was also found to inhibit gamma-secretase activity in CHAPSO-insoluble membrane microdomains (rafts). Kinetic analysis of beta-amyloid protein production in the presence of PI(4,5)P2 suggested a competitive inhibition. Even though phosphoinositides are minor phospholipids of the membrane, the concentration of PI(4,5)P2 within the intact membrane has been reported to be in the range of 4-8 mm. The presence of PI(4,5)P2-rich rafts in the membrane has been reported in a range of cell types. Furthermore, gamma-secretase is enriched in rafts. Taking these data together, we propose that phosphoinositides potentially regulate gamma-secretase activity by suppressing its association with the substrate.
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ABSTRACT: Not all of the mysteries of life lie in our genetic code. Some can be found buried in our membranes. These shells of fat, sculpted in the central nervous system into the cellular (and subcellular) boundaries of neurons and glia, are themselves complex systems of information. The diversity of neural phospholipids, coupled with their chameleon-like capacity to transmute into bioactive molecules, provides a vast repertoire of immediate response second messengers. The effects of compositional changes on synaptic function have only begun to be appreciated. Here, we mined 29 neurolipidomic datasets for changes in neuronal membrane phospholipid metabolism in Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Three overarching metabolic disturbances were detected. We found that an increase in the hydrolysis of platelet activating factor precursors and ethanolamine-containing plasmalogens, coupled with a failure to regenerate relatively rare alkyl-acyl and alkenyl-acyl structural phospholipids, correlated with disease severity. Accumulation of specific bioactive metabolites [i.e., PC(O-16:0/2:0) and PE(P-16:0/0:0)] was associated with aggravating tau pathology, enhancing vesicular release, and signaling neuronal loss. Finally, depletion of PI(16:0/20:4), PI(16:0/22:6), and PI(18:0/22:6) was implicated in accelerating Aβ42 biogenesis. Our analysis further suggested that converging disruptions in platelet activating factor, plasmalogen, phosphoinositol, phosphoethanolamine (PE), and docosahexaenoic acid metabolism may contribute mechanistically to catastrophic vesicular depletion, impaired receptor trafficking, and morphological dendritic deformation. Together, this analysis supports an emerging hypothesis that aberrant phospholipid metabolism may be one of multiple critical determinants required for Alzheimer disease conversion.Frontiers in Physiology 01/2013; 4:168.
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ABSTRACT: Understanding the substrate recognition mechanism of γ-secretase is a key step for establishing substrate-specific inhibition of amyloid β-protein (Aβ) production. However, it is widely believed that γ-secretase is a promiscuous protease and that its substrate-specific inhibition is elusive. Here we show that γ-secretase distinguishes the ectodomain length of substrates and preferentially captures and cleaves substrates containing a short ectodomain. We also show that a subset of peptides containing the CDCYCxxxxCxCxSC motif binds to the amino terminus of C99 and inhibits Aβ production in a substrate-specific manner. Interestingly, these peptides suppress β-secretase-dependent cleavage of APP, but not that of sialyltransferase 1. Most importantly, intraperitoneal administration of peptides into mice results in a significant reduction in cerebral Aβ levels. This report provides direct evidence of the substrate preference of γ-secretase and its mechanism. Our results demonstrate that the ectodomain of C99 is a potent target for substrate-specific anti-Aβ therapeutics to combat Alzheimer's disease.Nature Communications 10/2013; 4:2529. · 10.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Plasmalogens (Pls) are widely distributed in the biological membrane of animals and certain anaerobic bacteria, but their functions in the cell membrane are still poorly understood. Decrease of phosphatidylethanolamine plasmalogen (PEPls) in the brain tissue of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) prompted us to investigate the effect of the membrane phosphorus lipid composition on the activity of γ-secretase that produces amyloid beta protein (Aβ). To clarify the effect of phospholipids, including PEPls, on Aβ production, γ-secretase activity was measured in an in vitro assay using yeast microsomes and reconstituted liposomes. The presence of ethanolamine phospholipids in the proteoliposome weakened γ-secretase activity. In addition, increased PEPls content in total ethanolamine phospholipids further decreased the enzyme activity, indicating that γ-secretase activity is affected by the membrane phospholipid PEPls/phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) ratio. Furthermore, PEPls from anaerobic bacterial cell membrane induced the same effect on γ-secretase activity. © The Authors 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.Journal of Biochemistry 11/2014; · 3.07 Impact Factor