gamma-Secretase is an aspartic protease that hydrolyzes type I membrane proteins within the hydrophobic environment of the lipid bilayer. Using the CHAPSO-solubilized gamma-secretase assay system, we previously found that gamma-secretase activity was sensitive to the concentrations of detergent and phosphatidylcholine. This strongly suggests that the composition of the lipid bilayer has a significant impact on the activity of gamma-secretase. Recently, level of secreted beta-amyloid protein was reported to be attenuated by increasing levels of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-diphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) in cultured cells. However, it is not clear whether PI(4,5)P2 has a direct effect on gamma-secretase activity. In this study, we found that phosphoinositides directly inhibited CHAPSO-solubilized gamma-secretase activity. Interestingly, neither phosphatidylinositol nor inositol triphosphate altered gamma-secretase activity. PI(4,5)P2 was also found to inhibit gamma-secretase activity in CHAPSO-insoluble membrane microdomains (rafts). Kinetic analysis of beta-amyloid protein production in the presence of PI(4,5)P2 suggested a competitive inhibition. Even though phosphoinositides are minor phospholipids of the membrane, the concentration of PI(4,5)P2 within the intact membrane has been reported to be in the range of 4-8 mm. The presence of PI(4,5)P2-rich rafts in the membrane has been reported in a range of cell types. Furthermore, gamma-secretase is enriched in rafts. Taking these data together, we propose that phosphoinositides potentially regulate gamma-secretase activity by suppressing its association with the substrate.
"Yet, to date, biological significance of the astonishing number of potentially unique PIs and PIPxs is unknown. This is primarily due to the challenges associated with unambiguous compositional identification of PIs and PIPxs in biological membranes [1, 15–19]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The capacity to predict and visualize all theoretically possible glycerophospholipid molecular identities present in lipidomic datasets is currently limited. To address this issue, we expanded the search-engine and compositional databases of the online Visualization and Phospholipid Identification (VaLID) bioinformatic tool to include the glycerophosphoinositol superfamily. VaLID v1.0.0 originally allowed exact and average mass libraries of 736,584 individual species from eight phospholipid classes: glycerophosphates, glyceropyrophosphates, glycerophosphocholines, glycerophosphoethanolamines, glycerophosphoglycerols, glycerophosphoglycerophosphates, glycerophosphoserines, and cytidine 5'-diphosphate 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerols to be searched for any mass to charge value (with adjustable tolerance levels) under a variety of mass spectrometry conditions. Here, we describe an update that now includes all possible glycerophosphoinositols, glycerophosphoinositol monophosphates, glycerophosphoinositol bisphosphates, and glycerophosphoinositol trisphosphates. This update expands the total number of lipid species represented in the VaLID v2.0.0 database to 1,473,168 phospholipids. Each phospholipid can be generated in skeletal representation. A subset of species curated by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research Training Program in Neurodegenerative Lipidomics (CTPNL) team is provided as an array of high-resolution structures. VaLID is freely available and responds to all users through the CTPNL resources web site.
"However, as membrane thickness differs between distinct subcellular compartments, these characteristics of different membrane systems could strongly affect the generation of different Aβ species. Inhibitory effects on purified γ-secretase were observed for phosphoinosites
 and plasmalogens
. From the phosphatidylinositols tested, phosphatidylinositol(4,5)bisphosphate was most potent in γ-secretase inhibition, while phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol(3,4,5)trisphosphate had negligible effects. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is neuropathologically characterized by the combined occurrence of extracellular β-amyloid plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. While plaques contain aggregated forms of the amyloid β-peptide (Aβ), tangles are formed by fibrillar forms of the microtubule associated protein tau. All mutations identified so far to cause familial forms of early onset AD (FAD) are localized close to or within the Aβ domain of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) or in the presenilin proteins that are essential components of a protease complex involved in the generation of Aβ. Mutations in the tau gene are not associated with FAD, but can cause other forms of dementia. The genetics of FAD together with biochemical and cell biological data, led to the formulation of the amyloid hypothesis, stating that accumulation and aggregation of Aβ is the primary event in the pathogenesis of AD, while tau might mediate its toxicity and neurodegeneration.
The generation of Aβ involves sequential proteolytic cleavages of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by enzymes called β-and γ-secretases. Notably, APP itself as well as the secretases are integral membrane proteins. Thus, it is very likely that membrane lipids are involved in the regulation of subcellular transport, activity, and metabolism of AD related proteins.
Indeed, several studies indicate that membrane lipids, including cholesterol and sphingolipids (SLs) affect Aβ generation and aggregation. Interestingly, APP and other AD associated proteins, including β-and γ-secretases can, in turn, influence lipid metabolic pathways. Here, we review the close connection of cellular lipid metabolism and AD associated proteins and discuss potential mechanisms that could contribute to initiation and progression of AD.
"LC-ESI-MS analysis of ApoE-deficient mice has identified a key molecular specificity in the depletion of PI(16:0/20:4), PI(16:0/22:6), and PI(18:0/22:6) species at synaptic membranes coupled, in some profiles, with an aberrant increase in PI(18:0/20:4) (Igbavboa et al., 2002; Chan et al., 2012). These changes are not only predicted to impair neurotransmitter release but also to enhance γ-secretase activity, responsible for cleavage of APP to Aβ. PI(3)P(16:0/16:0), PI(4)P(16:0/16:0), PI(3,4)P2(16:0/16:0), PI(4,5)P2(16:0/16:0), and PI(3,4,5)P3(16:0/16:0), but not PI(16:0/16:0), PI(5)P(16:0/16:0), or IP3 inhibit γ-secretase activity in vitro (Osawa et al., 2008). Although carbon chain specificity has yet to be assessed, it is reasonable to assume that the depletion of PI(16:0/20:4) and PI(16:0/22:6), precipitated by loss of ApoE function, will also contribute to accelerating the processing of synaptotoxic Aβ peptides by γ-secretases. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Not all of the mysteries of life lie in our genetic code. Some can be found buried in our membranes. These shells of fat, sculpted in the central nervous system into the cellular (and subcellular) boundaries of neurons and glia, are themselves complex systems of information. The diversity of neural phospholipids, coupled with their chameleon-like capacity to transmute into bioactive molecules, provides a vast repertoire of immediate response second messengers. The effects of compositional changes on synaptic function have only begun to be appreciated. Here, we mined 29 neurolipidomic datasets for changes in neuronal membrane phospholipid metabolism in Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Three overarching metabolic disturbances were detected. We found that an increase in the hydrolysis of platelet activating factor precursors and ethanolamine-containing plasmalogens, coupled with a failure to regenerate relatively rare alkyl-acyl and alkenyl-acyl structural phospholipids, correlated with disease severity. Accumulation of specific bioactive metabolites [i.e., PC(O-16:0/2:0) and PE(P-16:0/0:0)] was associated with aggravating tau pathology, enhancing vesicular release, and signaling neuronal loss. Finally, depletion of PI(16:0/20:4), PI(16:0/22:6), and PI(18:0/22:6) was implicated in accelerating Aβ42 biogenesis. Our analysis further suggested that converging disruptions in platelet activating factor, plasmalogen, phosphoinositol, phosphoethanolamine (PE), and docosahexaenoic acid metabolism may contribute mechanistically to catastrophic vesicular depletion, impaired receptor trafficking, and morphological dendritic deformation. Together, this analysis supports an emerging hypothesis that aberrant phospholipid metabolism may be one of multiple critical determinants required for Alzheimer disease conversion.
Frontiers in Physiology 07/2013; 4:168. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2013.00168 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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