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DNA mismatch repair-dependent activation of c-Abl/p73 alpha/GADD45 alpha-mediated apoptosis

Laboratory of Molecular Stress Responses, Department of Oncology, Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390, USA.
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.6). 06/2008; 283(31):21394-403. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M709954200
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cells with functional DNA mismatch repair (MMR) stimulate G(2) cell cycle checkpoint arrest and apoptosis in response to N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). MMR-deficient cells fail to detect MNNG-induced DNA damage, resulting in the survival of "mutator" cells. The retrograde (nucleus-to-cytoplasm) signaling that initiates MMR-dependent G(2) arrest and cell death remains undefined. Since MMR-dependent phosphorylation and stabilization of p53 were noted, we investigated its role(s) in G(2) arrest and apoptosis. Loss of p53 function by E6 expression, dominant-negative p53, or stable p53 knockdown failed to prevent MMR-dependent G(2) arrest, apoptosis, or lethality. MMR-dependent c-Abl-mediated p73alpha and GADD45alpha protein up-regulation after MNNG exposure prompted us to examine c-Abl/p73alpha/GADD45alpha signaling in cell death responses. STI571 (Gleevec, a c-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor) and stable c-Abl, p73alpha, and GADD45alpha knockdown prevented MMR-dependent apoptosis. Interestingly, stable p73alpha knockdown blocked MMR-dependent apoptosis, but not G(2) arrest, thereby uncoupling G(2) arrest from lethality. Thus, MMR-dependent intrinsic apoptosis is p53-independent, but stimulated by hMLH1/c-Abl/p73alpha/GADD45alpha retrograde signaling.

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