The reduction chemistry of the new anti-tuberculosis drug PA-824, together with a more water-soluble analogue, have been investigated using pulse and steady-state radiolysis in aqueous solution. Stepwise reduction of these nitroimidazo-dihydrooxazine compounds through electron transfer from the CO(2) (-) species revealed that, unlike related nitroimidazoles, 2-electron addition resulted in the reduction of the imidazole ring in preference to the nitro group. In mildly acidic solution a nitrodihydroimidazo intermediate was formed, which was reduced further to the amine product. In both alkaline and neutral solution, an intermediate produced on 2-electron reduction was resistant to further reduction and reverted to parent compound on extraction or mass spectrometric analysis of the solution. The unusual reduction chemistry of these nitroimidazole compounds, exhibiting ring over nitro group reduction, is associated with alkoxy substitution in the 2-position of a 4-nitroimidazole. The unique properties of the intermediates formed on the reduction of PA-824 need to be considered as playing a possible role in its bactericidal action.
"We have also observed an additional metabolite (M2) in both mycobacteria and human liver S9. This putative hydrated product of PA-824, not previously described as an M. tuberculosis product, has been reported following the radiolytic reduction of PA-824 (Anderson et al., 2008). The formation of M2 via one-electron reduction of the imidazole ring is unlikely, as such reduction will occur only under hypoxic conditions. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PA-824 is a 2-nitroimidazooxazine prodrug currently in Phase II clinical trial for tuberculosis therapy. It is bioactivated by a deazaflavin (F(420) )-dependent nitroreductase (Ddn) isolated from Mycobacterium tuberculosis to form a des-nitro metabolite. This releases toxic reactive nitrogen species which may be responsible for its anti-mycobacterial activity. There are no published reports of mammalian enzymes bioactivating this prodrug. We have investigated the metabolism of PA-824 following incubation with a subcellular fraction of human liver, in comparison with purified Ddn, M. tuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis.
PA-824 (250 µM) was incubated with the 9000 × g supernatant (S9) of human liver homogenates, purified Ddn, M. tuberculosis and M. smegmatis for metabolite identification by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analysis.
PA-824 was metabolized to seven products by Ddn and M. tuberculosis, with the major metabolite being the des-nitro product. Six of these products, but not the des-nitro metabolite, were also detected in M. smegmatis. In contrast, only four of these metabolites were observed in human liver S9; M3, a reduction product previously proposed as an intermediate in the Ddn-catalyzed des-nitrification and radiolytic reduction of PA-824; two unidentified metabolites, M1 and M4, which were products of M3; and a haem-catalyzed product of imidazole ring hydration (M2).
PA-824 was metabolized by des-nitrification in Ddn and M. tuberculosis, but this does not occur in human liver S9 and M. smegmatis. Thus, PA-824 was selectively bioactivated in M. tuberculosis and there was no evidence for 'cross-activation' by human enzymes.
British Journal of Pharmacology 10/2010; 162(1):226-36. DOI:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.01040.x · 4.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bicyclic nitroimidazoles, including PA-824, are exciting candidates for the treatment of tuberculosis. These prodrugs require intracellular activation for their biological function. We found that Rv3547 is a deazaflavin-dependent nitroreductase (Ddn) that converts PA-824 into three primary metabolites; the major one is the corresponding des-nitroimidazole (des-nitro). When derivatives of PA-824 were used, the amount of des-nitro metabolite formed was highly correlated with anaerobic killing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Des-nitro metabolite formation generated reactive nitrogen species, including nitric oxide (NO), which are the major effectors of the anaerobic activity of these compounds. Furthermore, NO scavengers protected the bacilli from the lethal effects of the drug. Thus, these compounds may act as intracellular NO donors and could augment a killing mechanism intrinsic to the innate immune system.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The nitroimidazooxazine S-1 (PA-824) is a new class of bioreductive drug for tuberculosis. A series of related bicyclic nitroheterocycles was synthesized, designed to have a wide range of one-electron reduction potentials E(1) (from -570 to -338 mV, compared with -534 mV for S-1). The observed E(1) values closely correlated with the sigma(m) values of the heteroatom at the 4/8-position of the adjacent six-membered ring. Although the compounds spanned a range of E(1) values around that of S-1, only the nitroimidazothiazines showed significant antitubercular activity (at a similar level of potency), suggesting that E(1) is not the main driver of efficacy. Furthermore, there was a correlation between activity and the formation of imidazole ring-reduced products at the two-electron level, pointing to the potential importance of this reduction pathway, which is determined by the nature of the substituent at the 2-position of the 4-nitroimidazole ring.
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