The Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy scale: an examination of the personality traits and disorders associated with the LSRP factors.
ABSTRACT There are several self-report measures of psychopathy, most of which use a two-factor structure. There is debate regarding the convergence of these factors, particularly with regard to Factor 1 (F1), which is related to the interpersonal and affective aspects of psychopathy; Factor 2 (F2) is related to the social deviance associated with psychopathy. This study examines the relations between the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy (LSRP) factors and personality traits and disorders (PDs) in an undergraduate sample (n = 271). LSRP Factor 1 is related to an antagonistic interpersonal style (i.e., low Agreeableness; high Narcissistic PD and ratings of prototypical psychopathy), whereas Factor 2 is more strongly related to negative emotionality (i.e., Neuroticism), disinhibition (i.e., low Conscientiousness) and a broad array of PD symptoms. The authors interpret these findings in the context of alternative measures of psychopathy and suggest that the LSRP is a reasonable, albeit imperfect, measure of psychopathy.
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ABSTRACT: This pilot study aimed to explore whether criminal psychopaths can learn volitional regulation of the left anterior insula with real-time fMRI neurofeedback. Our previous studies with healthy volunteers showed that learned control of the blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) signal was specific to the target region, and not a result of general arousal and global unspecific brain activation, and also that successful regulation modulates emotional responses, specifically to aversive picture stimuli but not neutral stimuli. In this pilot study, four criminal psychopaths were trained to regulate the anterior insula by employing negative emotional imageries taken from previous episodes in their lives, in conjunction with contingent feedback. Only one out of the four participants learned to increase the percent differential BOLD in the up-regulation condition across training runs. Subjects with higher Psychopathic Checklist-Revised (PCL:SV) scores were less able to increase the BOLD signal in the anterior insula than their lower PCL:SV counterparts. We investigated functional connectivity changes in the emotional network due to learned regulation of the successful participant, by employing multivariate Granger Causality Modeling (GCM). Learning to up-regulate the left anterior insula not only increased the number of connections (causal density) in the emotional network in the single successful participant but also increased the difference between the number of outgoing and incoming connections (causal flow) of the left insula. This pilot study shows modest potential for training psychopathic individuals to learn to control brain activity in the anterior insula.Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 10/2014; 8:344. DOI:10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00344 · 4.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The recent popularity of the HEXACO model has led to the examination of different instruments based on this model in a variety of contexts and languages. This study examines the psychometric properties of the HEXACO-100 in the Spanish language. A sample of 876 Spanish adults were administered the HEXACO-100 as well as the NEO PI-R and self-reported measures of psychopathy, forgiveness, empathy and well-being. The results support the test–retest reliability of the scales of the HEXACO-100 and the alpha reliability of the domains. An analysis of factor structure, correlations between the domains and correlations with the NEO PI-R support the validity of the six factors. Relationships with psychopathy, forgiveness and empathy are in accordance with suppositions of the original model and highlight the difference between Honesty–Humility and Agreeableness. The results also indicate that the HEXACO-100 outperforms the NEO PI-R in terms of predicting specific dimensions of psychopathy, forgiveness and empathy; however there are no substantial advantages found in the prediction of well-being. Overall, results support the usefulness of the Spanish HEXACO-100 in capturing the original domains of the model and support its usefulness in the study of interpersonal criteria.Personality and Individual Differences 04/2015; 76. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2014.11.056 · 1.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent models of psychopathy implicate Disinhibition vs. Constraint (DvC) as one of the primary underpinnings of psychopathic traits, although little research has examined associations between specific DvC components and psychopathy facets. The present study aimed to fill this gap by examining associations between psychopathy facets, as operationalized by two widely used self-report psychopathy instruments, and lower-order components of DvC within a racially diverse sample of 1,160 undergraduates. Path analyses confirmed the broad dimension of DvC as representing a general diathesis to psychopathy, with second-order components conferring more specific risks for particular psychopathy traits regardless of the model of psychopathy employed. Further, findings suggest that associations do not vary by race. Results suggest both generality and specificity of DvC dimensions as they relate to psychopathic traits, as well as potential avenues for further investigation of the associations between psychopathy and DvC.Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment 12/2014; 36(4). DOI:10.1007/s10862-014-9415-4 · 1.55 Impact Factor