Cannabis Use and Later Life Outcomes

University of Otago, Christchurch School of Medicine and Health Sciences, New Zealand.
Addiction (Impact Factor: 4.74). 06/2008; 103(6):969-76; discussion 977-8. DOI: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2008.02221.x
Source: PubMed


To examine the associations between the extent of cannabis use during adolescence and young adulthood and later education, economic, employment, relationship satisfaction and life satisfaction outcomes.
A longitudinal study of a New Zealand birth cohort studied to age 25 years.
Measures of: cannabis use at ages 14-25; university degree attainment to age 25; income at age 25; welfare dependence during the period 21-25 years; unemployment 21-25 years; relationship quality; life satisfaction. Also, measures of childhood socio-economic disadvantage, family adversity, childhood and early adolescent behavioural adjustment and cognitive ability and adolescent and young adult mental health and substance use.
There were statistically significant bivariate associations between increasing levels of cannabis use at ages 14-21 and: lower levels of degree attainment by age 25 (P < 0.0001); lower income at age 25 (P < 0.01); higher levels of welfare dependence (P < 0.0001); higher unemployment (P < 0.0001); lower levels of relationship satisfaction (P < 0.001); and lower levels of life satisfaction (P < 0.0001). These associations were adjusted for a range of potentially confounding factors including: family socio-economic background; family functioning; exposure to child abuse; childhood and adolescent adjustment; early adolescent academic achievement; and comorbid mental disorders and substance use. After adjustment, the associations between increasing cannabis use and all outcome measures remained statistically significant (P < 0.05).
The results of the present study suggest that increasing cannabis use in late adolescence and early adulthood is associated with a range of adverse outcomes in later life. High levels of cannabis use are related to poorer educational outcomes, lower income, greater welfare dependence and unemployment and lower relationship and life satisfaction. The findings add to a growing body of knowledge regarding the adverse consequences of heavy cannabis use.

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    • "Több vizsgálat kimutatta, hogy a fiatalkorban kezdett, rendszeres és magas THC-tartalmú kannabiszhasználat szignifikáns hatással van későbbi pszichotikus tünetek kialakulására (Hoch et al., 2015; Semple et al., 2005). Szociálpszichológiai kutatások pedig a kannabiszfogyasztást összefüggésbe hozták a szegényebb szociális kapcsolatrendszerrel, alacsonyabb szintű elégedettséggel (Fergusson & Boden, 2008). Ezeknek a kutatásoknak akadnak kritikusai is, akik szerint a közlemények tendenciózuson elfogultak (Martin & Rashi dian, 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: In lack of professional research and appropriate concepts our scientific knowledge of psychedelic agents is limited. According to the long-held official view these drugs are entirely harmful and have no medical use. However, a recent surge of clinical and pharmacological studies in the field indicates that many psychedelic-like agents have therapeutic potentials under proper circumstances. In this paper, from a biomedical and psychological perspective, we provide a brief review of the general effects and promising treatment uses of medical cannabis, 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA), salvinorin A, ibogaine and the dimethyltryptamine-(DMT)-containing ayahuasca. In Hungary - similarly to many other countries - these compounds are classified as "narcotic drugs" and their research is difficult due to strict regulations.
    Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica: a Magyar Pszichofarmakológiai Egyesület lapja = official journal of the Hungarian Association of Psychopharmacology 10/2015; 17(3):120-128.
    • "Second, most studies have not followed participants into the 30s, a developmental period when adult roles and intimate relationships become increasingly solidified. Third, studies have not been able to comprehensively control for potential confounding factors that pre-date regular marijuana use, which makes it impossible to rule out the possibility that common causal factors account for the association between marijuana use and later adult functioning (Fergusson and Bowden, 2008). Fourth, many studies have failed to account for co-occurring other substance use. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Given recent changes in marijuana policy in the United States, it is important to understand the long-term effects of marijuana use on adult functioning. We examined whether men who displayed different trajectories of marijuana use from adolescence through emerging adulthood (age ∼15-26) differed in terms of socioeconomic, social, and life satisfaction outcomes in their mid-30s. Methods: Data came from a longitudinal sample of men who were recruited in early adolescence (N=506) and followed into adulthood. Four trajectory groups based on patterns of marijuana use from adolescence into emerging adulthood were compared on adult outcomes (age ∼36) before and after controlling for co-occurring use of other substances and several pre-existing confounding factors in early adolescence. The potential moderating effect of race was also examined. Results: Although there were initially group differences across all domains, once pre-existing confounds and co-occurring other substance use were included in the model, groups only differed in terms of partner and friend marijuana use. Chronic marijuana users reported the highest proportions of both. Frequent and persistent marijuana use was associated with lower socioeconomic status (SES) for Black men only. Conclusions: After statistically accounting for confounding variables, chronic marijuana users were not at a heightened risk for maladjustment in adulthood except for lower SES among Black men. Chronic users were more likely to have friends and partners who also used marijuana. Future studies should take into account pre-existing differences when examining outcomes of marijuana use.
    Drug and alcohol dependence 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.08.031 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    • "We examine whether adolescents tend to experience more attention problems and academic difficulties during years when they report using marijuana experimentally (less than monthly) or moderately (at least once a month), relative to their levels of attention problems and academic difficulties before marijuana use was initiated . In addition, analyses examine whether these problems persisted after abstinence lasting at least a year, consistent with the notion that regular adolescent marijuana use can cause long-term impairments in cognitive and academic functioning (Fergusson and Boden 2008; Meier et al. 2012). Importantly, analytic models that focus on within-individual change are used to eliminate all pre-existing and time-invariant factors (e.g., early psychosocial adversity, genotype, intellectual abilities , prenatal complications, race) that vary between individuals as potential confounds, thereby strengthening causal inference (Allison 2009; Osgood 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: There is some suggestion that heavy marijuana use during early adolescence (prior to age 17) may cause significant impairments in attention and academic functioning that remain despite sustained periods of abstinence. However, no longitudinal studies have examined whether both male and female adolescents who engage in low (less than once a month) to moderate (at least once a monthly) marijuana use experience increased problems with attention and academic performance, and whether these problems remain following sustained abstinence. The current study used within-individual change models to control for all potential pre-existing and time-stable confounds when examining this potential causal association in two gender-specific longitudinal samples assessed annually from ages 11 to 16 (Pittsburgh Youth Study N = 479; Pittsburgh Girls Study N = 2296). Analyses also controlled for the potential influence of several pertinent time-varying factors (e.g., other substance use, peer delinquency). Prior to controlling for time-varying confounds, analyses indicated that adolescents tended to experience an increase in parent-reported attention and academic problems, relative to their pre-onset levels, during years when they used marijuana. After controlling for several time-varying confounds, only the association between marijuana use and attention problems in the sample of girls remained statistically significant. There was no evidence indicating that adolescents who used marijuana experienced lingering attention and academic problems, relative to their pre-onset levels, after abstaining from use for at least a year. These results suggest that adolescents who engage in low to moderate marijuana use experience an increase in observable attention and academic problems, but these problems appear to be minimal and are eliminated following sustained abstinence.
    Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 04/2015; 43(7). DOI:10.1007/s10802-015-0012-0 · 3.09 Impact Factor
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