"Of the drugs used, infliximab, etanercept and adalimumab appeared to improve outcomes . Sanchez-Cano et al., also reported improved outcomes with adalimumab in a patients with severe aphthous ulcers . The role of cytokines such as TNFα in severe aphthous stomatitis, especially in underlying disorders such as CD needs to be clarified. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Celiac disease is a common autoimmune disease triggered by gluten-containing foods (wheat, barley and rye) in genetically predisposed individuals. We present a patient with celiac disease complicated by severe aphthous stomatitis resulting in impairing swallowing, chewing and speaking. This led to weight loss, psychosocial problems as well as inability to perform her work. A variety of topical and systemic medications used resulted in either no improvement or only partial alleviation of the patient's symptoms. After informed consent, etanercept was initiated and resulted in complete remission of aphthous stomatitis, decrease in arthralgia and fatigue and considerable improvement in her quality of life. The use of newer biological agents for selected and severe manifestations of celiac disease may lead to improved morbidity in these patients, but more studies are needed to determine long-term efficacy as well as safety of these drugs in the mucosal and/or systemic complications of this disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recurrent Aphthous Ulceration (RAU) is a chronic oral inflammatory disease that affects approximately 25% of the general population. The etiology of the disease is unknown; however, factors that favor the onset of RAU have been correlated with a Th1 immune polarization, while factors that reduce RAU episodes have been associated with down regulation of immune reaction or stimulation of the peripheral tolerance. In this context, the integrity of the epithelial barrier is also fundamental for the prevention of the disease and conditions that augment its permeability or produce disruption are considered potential triggers. The key factor responsible for increased susceptibility is unclear, though a deficiency of Toll-like receptor (TLR) activity seems to be a good candidate. TLRs are a group of membrane proteins that recognize conserved molecules derived from bacterial, virus, fungal, or host tissues. Particularly, the TLR2 is involved in both immune regulation and control of epithelial barrier integrity. Thus, based on literature review, we showed evidences that correlate the TLR2 dysfunction and the diverse predisposing factors with the elements considered critical for disease pathogenesis: the Th1 immune reaction and the increased epithelial permeability.
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