Epidemiologic and animal studies provide evidence for a chemopreventive effect of selenium on colorectal cancer, which may be mediated by the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of selenoenzymes. We therefore investigated whether genetic variants in selenoenzymes abundantly expressed in the colon are associated with advanced colorectal adenoma, a cancer precursor.
Cases with a left-sided advanced adenoma (n = 772) and matched controls (n = 777) screen negative for polyps based on sigmoidoscopy examination were randomly selected from participants in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. The underlying genetic variation was determined by resequencing. We genotyped 44 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in six genes [glutathione peroxidase 1-4 (GPX1, GPX2, GPX3, and GPX4), selenoprotein P (SEPP1), and thioredoxin reductase 1 (TXNRD1)] to efficiently predict common variation across these genes.
Four variants in SEPP1 were significantly associated with advanced adenoma risk. A rare variant in the 5' region of SEPP1 (-4166C>G) was present in nine cases but in none of the controls (exact P = 0.002). Three SNPs located in the 3' region of SEPP1, which is overlapping with the promoter region of an antisense transcript, were significantly associated with adenoma risk: homozygotes at two SEPP1 loci (31,174 bp 3' of STP A>G and 43,881 bp 3' of STP G>A) were associated with increased adenoma risk [odds ratio (OR), 1.48; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.00-2.19 and OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.05-2.22, respectively] and the variant SEPP1 44,321 bp 3' of STP C>T was associated with a reduced adenoma risk (CT versus CC OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.63-1.15). Furthermore, we observed a significant 80% reduction for advanced colorectal adenoma risk for carriers of the variant allele at TXNRD1 IVS1-181C>G (OR, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.07-0.55; P trend = 0.004). Consistent with the individual SNP results, we observed a significant overall association with adenoma risk for SEPP1 and TXNRD1 (global P = 0.02 and 0.008, respectively) but not for the four GPX genes.
Our study suggests that genetic variants at or near the SEPP1 and TXNRD1 loci may be associated with advanced colorectal adenoma. As this is the first study to comprehensively investigate this hypothesis, confirmation in independent study populations is needed.
"Hansen et al. (2009) did not investigate other SNPs on GPX1-4. A lack of association between polymorphisms in GPX1-4 and colorectal adenomas was indicated by a study of 772 cases with left-sided advanced adenomas and 777 matched controls within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (Peters et al., 2008). Another study investigating candidate SNPs in GPX1 (rs1050450) and in GPX4 (rs713041) in 729 CRC cases and 664 controls reported an increased risk of CRC for the variant genotypes of rs713041 (2573 C>T) (Méplan et al., 2008); this is at variance with results in the present study, but we could only assess the association with colon cancer because the SNP failed quality control criteria in the rectal cancer study. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glutathione peroxidases (GPXs) are selenium-dependent enzymes that reduce and, thus, detoxify hydrogen peroxide and a wide variety of lipid hydroperoxides. We investigated tagSNPs in GPX1-4 in relation to colorectal neoplasia in three independent study populations capturing the range of colorectal carcinogenesis from adenoma to cancer. A linkage-disequilibrium (LD)-based tagSNP selection algorithm (r(2) ≥ 0.90, MAF ≥ 4%) identified 21 tagSNPs. We used an identical Illumina platform to genotype GPX SNPs in three population-based case-control studies of colon cancer (1,424 cases/1,780 controls), rectal cancer (583 cases/775 controls), and colorectal adenomas (485 cases/578 controls). For gene-level associations, we conducted principal component analysis (PCA); multiple logistic regression was used for single SNPs. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and study center and restricted to non-Hispanic white participants. Analyses of cancer endpoints were stratified by molecular subtypes. Without correction for multiple testing, one polymorphism in GPX2 and three polymorphisms in GPX3 were associated with a significant risk reduction for rectal cancer at α = 0.05, specifically for rectal cancers with TP53 mutations. The associations regarding the three polymorphisms in GPX3 remained statistically significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. The PCA confirmed an overall association of GPX3 with rectal cancer (P = 0.03). No other statistically significant associations were observed. Our data provide preliminary evidence that genetic variability in GPX3 contributes to risk of rectal cancer but not of colon cancer and thus provide additional support for differences in underlying pathogenetic mechanisms for colon and rectal cancer.
Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 06/2012; 51(6):598-605. DOI:10.1002/gcc.21946 · 4.04 Impact Factor
"The importance of selenium in PII enzymes, such as TXNRD1, has been demonstrated by truncation of the selenocysteine active site, which resulted in abolishment of activity (Zhong and Holmgren, 2000). Numerous studies have implicated the role of polymorphisms within the selenium metabolic pathway and effects on antioxidant enzymes and disease (Hail et al., 2008; Peters et al., 2008; Meplan et al., 2010). The omega glutathione transferases (GSTO1 and GSTO2) facilitate the reduction of DHA to ascorbate. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Consumption of fruits and vegetables is recognized as an important part of a healthy diet. Increased consumption of cruciferous vegetables in particular has been associated with a decreased risk of several degenerative and chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. Members of the cruciferous vegetable family, which includes broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, and cabbage, accumulate significant concentrations of glucosinolates, which are metabolized in vivo to biologically active isothiocyanates (ITCs). The ITC sulforaphane, which is derived from glucoraphanin, has garnered particular interest as an indirect antioxidant due to its extraordinary ability to induce expression of several enzymes via the KEAP1/Nrf2/ARE pathway. Nrf2/ARE gene products are typically characterized as Phase II detoxification enzymes and/or antioxidant (AO) enzymes. Over the last decade, human clinical studies have begun to provide in vivo evidence of both Phase II and AO enzyme induction by SF. Many AO enzymes are redox cycling enzymes that maintain redox homeostasis and activity of free radical scavengers such as vitamins A, C, and E. In this review, we present the existing evidence for induction of PII and AO enzymes by SF, the interactions of SF-induced AO enzymes and proposed maintenance of the essential vitamins A, C, and E, and, finally, the current view of genotypic effects on ITC metabolism and AO enzyme induction and function.
Frontiers in Genetics 01/2012; 3:7. DOI:10.3389/fgene.2012.00007
"All of these changes will profoundly influence the way in which the body metabolizes and utilizes nutrients such as Se (Mathers and Hesketh, 2007; van Ommen et al., 2010b; Zeisel, 2010). An increasing number of Se studies have used nutrigenetic approaches, in considering the functionality of various SNPs in selenoproteins, and the effects of such functional SNPs on individual Se requirements (Villette et al., 2002; Bermano et al., 2007; Mathers and Hesketh, 2007; Méplan et al., 2007, 2008, 2010; Cooper et al., 2008; Hesketh, 2008; Peters et al., 2008; Lietz and Hesketh, 2009; Sutherland et al., 2010; Xiong et al., 2010). There is also one study suggesting that CNVs may also be important for Se metabolism and function (Amar et al., 2010). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Selenium (Se) is an important micronutrient that, as a component of selenoproteins, influences oxidative and inflammatory processes. Its' levels vary considerably, with different ethnic and geographic population groups showing varied conditions, ranging from frank Se deficiencies to toxic effects. An optimum Se level is essential for the maintenance of homeostasis, and this optimum may vary according to life stage, general state of health, and genotype. Nutrigenetic studies of different Se levels, in the presence of genetic variants in selenoproteins, suggest that an effective dietary Se intake for one individual may be very different from that for others. However, we are just starting to learn the significance of various genes in selenoprotein pathways, functional variants in these, and how to combine such data from genes into pathways, alongside dietary intake or serum levels of Se. Advances in systems biology, genetics, and genomics technologies, including genetic/genomic, epigenetic/epigenomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic information, start to make it feasible to assess a comprehensive spectrum of the biological activity of Se. Such nutrigenomic approaches may prove very sensitive biomarkers of optimal Se status at the individual or population level. The premature cessation of a major human Se intervention trial has led to considerable controversy as to the value of Se supplementation at the population level. New websites provide convenient links to current information on methodologies available for nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics. These new technologies will increasingly become an essential tool in optimizing the level of Se and other micronutrients for optimal health, in individuals and in population groups. However, definitive proof of such effects will require very large collaborative studies, international agreement on study design, and innovative approaches to data analysis.
Frontiers in Genetics 04/2011; 2:15. DOI:10.3389/fgene.2011.00015
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