[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endothelial adaptations to exercise training are not exclusively conferred within the active muscle beds. Herein, we summarize key studies that have evaluated the impact of chronic exercise on the endothelium of vasculatures perfusing nonworking skeletal muscle, brain, viscera, and skin, concluding with discussion of potential mechanisms driving these endothelial adaptations.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Blood flow-induced endothelial shear stress (ESS) during aerobic (AX) and resistance (RX) exercise can regulate endothelial function. However, non-invasive in vivo ESS estimation is normally obtained only according to Poiseuille's laws for streamline flow, rather than using Womersley's approximation for pulsatile flows. Here, we sought to determine brachial and femoral artery blood flow patterns, based on ESS, flow direction, and flow turbulence, using both pulsatile and streamline flow approximations during low- and moderate-intensity AX and RX. We performed high-resolution ultrasound imaging and Doppler peak blood flow velocity (V) measurements of the brachial and femoral arteries in eight young, healthy men during rest and two intensities of AX and RX at 40 and 70% of VO(2)max and 1-RM, respectively. Microhematocrit measurement was used to determine blood density (ρ) and viscosity (μ). ESS was calculated using Poiseuille's law, ESS = 2μ × SR (V/artery diameter), and Womersley's approximation, ESS = 2 Kμ × SR, where K is a function of Womersley's parameter α. Turbulence was determined using Reynolds number (Re). Re was calculated using Re = V × artery diameter × ρ/μ and normalized to resting steady-state values (nRe). ESS increases in a dose-dependent manner in the femoral and brachial arteries during both AX and RX when using either streamline or pulsatile approximations. However, our findings indicate that ESS is underestimated when using Poiseuille's law. Secondly, turbulence increases in conduit arteries with exercise intensity in a dose-dependent manner in both retrograde and antegrade flows during both AX and RX.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to elucidate changes in mean blood flow and oscillatory blood flow patterns to the inactive limb during leg cycle exercise in hypoxia. We hypothesized that oscillatory antegrade and retrograde blood flows to the nonworking limb would increase during incremental cycle exercise under hypoxic condition.
Eight males participated in this study. Two maximal exercise tests were conducted on a semirecumbent cycle ergometer while subjects inhaled a normoxic (inspired oxygen fraction [FIO2] = 0.21) or hypoxic gas mixture (FIO2 = 0.12). The exercise began at an initial power output of 30 W, and workload was increased by 30 W every 2 min until exhaustion. Brachial artery blood velocity and diameter were simultaneously recorded during exercise using Doppler ultrasonography. Blood flow was calculated using the cross-sectional area of the brachial artery and time-averaged mean blood velocity.
Mean blood flow decreased until 120 W in both trials (P < 0.05), and the magnitude of the reduction in mean blood flow was not different between two trials. However, the extent of changes in antegrade and retrograde blood flows during submaximal exercise in hypoxia was greater than that in normoxia (normoxia vs hypoxia: antegrade blood flow at 120 W = 145.4 ± 10.3 vs 172.4 ± 9.0 mL·min and retrograde blood flow at 120 W = -89.1 ± 4.9 vs -118.1 ± 6.2 mL·min, P < 0.05).
These results indicate that hypoxia has a significant effect on oscillatory antegrade/retrograde blood flow patterns in nonworking limb during cycling exercise.
Medicine and science in sports and exercise 06/2012; 44(6):1035-42. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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