Novel cationic liposome formulation for the delivery of an oligonucleotide decoy to NF-kappaB into activated macrophages.
ABSTRACT Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is involved in several pathological processes, such as inflammation. Pro-inflammatory genes expression can be down-regulated by using an oligonucleotide (ODN) decoy to NF-kappaB. Cationic liposomes are largely used to improve ODN uptake into cells, although a higher transfection efficiency and a lower toxicity are required to use them in therapy. In this work, we investigated the potential of a novel liposome formulation, based on the recently synthesised cationic lipid (2,3-didodecyloxypropyl) (2-hydroxyethyl) dimethylammonium bromide (DE), as the delivery system for a double stranded ODN decoy to NF-kappaB. Liposomes composed of DE or DE mixed with 1,2-dioleyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine or cholesterol as helper lipids were complexed with ODN at different +/- charge ratios. In vitro uptake and the effect of ODN, naked or complexed with DE-containing liposomes, were evaluated in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The use of helper lipids increased liposome physical stability up to 1 year at 4 degrees C. ODN complexed with DE/cholesterol liposomes, at the +/- charge ratio of 8, showed a limited cytotoxicity and the highest inhibition of nitrite production, inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression and NF-kappaB/DNA binding activity. Confocal microscopy confirmed a high ODN cell uptake obtained with DE/cholesterol liposomes at the highest +/- charge ratio.
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ABSTRACT: Since cationic liposome was first developed as a lipofection reagent, a drawback has been noted in that the efficiency of lipofection decreases dramatically after addition of serum to the lipofection medium. This drawback hampers the application of cationic liposome for systematic delivery of genes. In the present studies, we found that the effect of serum on DC-chol liposome-mediated lipofection is dependent on the charge ratio of liposome to DNA. Serum inhibited lipofection activity of the lipoplex at low charge ratios, whereas it enhanced the lipofection activity at high charge ratios. This phenomenon was observed using DOTAP/DOPE but not lipofectamine. Measurement of cellular association of DNA showed that serum could reduce the binding of lipoplex to cells at all tested charge ratios, i.e. 0-10.6. Removal of negatively charged proteins from serum by DEAE Sephacel column abolished the inhibitory effect of serum on lipofection. The fraction contained only negatively charged serum proteins which strongly inhibited lipofection at low charge ratios but not at higher charge ratios. Furthermore, preincubation of serum with positively charged polylysine, which neutralized negatively charged serum proteins, eliminated the inhibitory effect of serum on lipofection. In summary, inactivation of cationic liposome by serum is due to negatively charged serum proteins and it can be overcome by increasing charge ratio of cationic liposome-DNA lipoplexes or by neutralizing the serum with polylysine.Gene Therapy 10/1997; 4(9):950-60. · 4.32 Impact Factor
Article: iNOS (NOS2) at a glance.Journal of Cell Science 07/2004; 117(Pt 14):2865-7. · 5.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) transcription factor regulates the expression of genes involved in immune response and inflammation. NF-kappaB activity can be efficiently inhibited by double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs). In the present study, we investigated the potential of poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres as delivery system for an ODN against NF-kappaB in RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Microspheres encapsulating ODN were prepared by the multiple emulsion/solvent evaporation technique and characterised in terms of size, morphology, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro release profile. In vitro uptake after 4 h and activity of ODN released from microspheres were evaluated in RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated with LPS for 24, 48 and 72 h. We prepared microspheres with a high encapsulation efficiency showing a very slow and almost constant in vitro release of ODN for up to 1 month. ODN slowly released from microspheres translocated better into LPS-stimulated cells as compared with naked ODN. Incubation of cells with ODN-encapsulating microspheres resulted in a decrease of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and nitrite production, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression, as well as NF-kappaB/DNA-binding activity. Similar results were obtained with naked ODN only at about 80 times higher concentrations. Our results suggest that PLGA microspheres could be a useful tool to improve pharmacokinetics of a ODN decoy to NF-kappaB and may represent a promising strategy to effectively inhibit the transcriptional activity of NF-kappaB in inflammatory process.The Journal of Gene Medicine 07/2005; 7(6):771-81. · 2.16 Impact Factor