Novel cationic liposome formulation for the delivery of an oligonucleotide decoy to NF-kappaB into activated macrophages.
ABSTRACT Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is involved in several pathological processes, such as inflammation. Pro-inflammatory genes expression can be down-regulated by using an oligonucleotide (ODN) decoy to NF-kappaB. Cationic liposomes are largely used to improve ODN uptake into cells, although a higher transfection efficiency and a lower toxicity are required to use them in therapy. In this work, we investigated the potential of a novel liposome formulation, based on the recently synthesised cationic lipid (2,3-didodecyloxypropyl) (2-hydroxyethyl) dimethylammonium bromide (DE), as the delivery system for a double stranded ODN decoy to NF-kappaB. Liposomes composed of DE or DE mixed with 1,2-dioleyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine or cholesterol as helper lipids were complexed with ODN at different +/- charge ratios. In vitro uptake and the effect of ODN, naked or complexed with DE-containing liposomes, were evaluated in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The use of helper lipids increased liposome physical stability up to 1 year at 4 degrees C. ODN complexed with DE/cholesterol liposomes, at the +/- charge ratio of 8, showed a limited cytotoxicity and the highest inhibition of nitrite production, inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression and NF-kappaB/DNA binding activity. Confocal microscopy confirmed a high ODN cell uptake obtained with DE/cholesterol liposomes at the highest +/- charge ratio.
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ABSTRACT: Oligonucleotides (ONs) are synthetic fragments of nucleic acid designed to modulate the expression of target proteins. DNA-based ONs (antisense, antigene, aptamer or decoy) and more recently a new class of RNA-based ONs, the small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), have gained great attention for the treatment of different disease states, such as viral infections, inflammation, diabetes, and cancer. However, the development of therapeutic strategies based on ONs is hampered by their low bioavailability, poor intracellular uptake and rapid degradation in biological fluids. The use of a non-viral carrier can be a powerful tool to overcome these drawbacks. Lipid or polymer-based nanotechnologies can improve biological stability and cellular uptake of ONs, with possibility of tissue and/or cellular targeting. The use of polymeric devices can also produce a prolonged release of the ON, thus reducing the need of frequent administrations. This review summarizes advantages and issues related to the main non-viral vectors used for ON delivery.Molecules 02/2009; 14(8):2801-23. DOI:10.3390/molecules14082801 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lipoplexes containing a hyaluronic acid-dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (HA-DOPE) conjugate were designed to target the CD44 receptor on breast cancer cells. Cationic liposomes composed of a mixture of [2-(2,3-didodecyloxypropyl)hydroxyethyl]ammonium bromide (DE) and dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) with or without HA-DOPE were prepared, characterized, and used to form a complex with plasmid DNA pCMV-luc. Lipoplexes displayed a negative zeta potential and a mean diameter between 250-300 nm. Cytotoxicity and transfection efficiency of the lipoplexes were determined on the MDA-MB-231and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. Cytotoxicity was not modified by the presence of HA-DOPE. However HA-DOPE increased the level of transfection on CD44-expressing MDA-MB-231 cells compared to the MCF-7 line, which expresses very low levels of CD44. The transfection on the MDA-MB-231 cells was highly inhibited by anti-CD44 Hermes-1 antibody but not by the nonspecific anti-ErbB2 antibody. In conclusion, cationic liposomes containing the HA-DOPE conjugate mediated good transfection on CD44 expressing cell lines in culture.Molecular Pharmaceutics 06/2009; 6(4):1062-73. DOI:10.1021/mp800215d · 4.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) plays a key role in the expression of several genes involved in the immune and inflammatory process. Previously, we demonstrated that NF-kappaB activation can be significantly inhibited by a double stranded oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN). Nevertheless, the therapeutic use of ODN requires a delivery system able to improve poor crossing of cell membranes and rapid in vivo enzymatic degradation. Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres can increase ODN stability in biological environment and release the encapsulated drug in long time frames. Here, we used a decoy ODN against NF-kappaB and we investigated its effect, when administered in naked form or when delivered by PLGA microspheres, in a rat model of chronic inflammation. The subcutaneous implant of lambda-carrageenin-soaked sponges caused leukocyte infiltration and formation of granulation tissue which were inhibited up to 15 days by co-injection of microspheres releasing decoy ODN whereas naked decoy ODN showed this effect only up to 5 days. Molecular analysis performed on granulation tissue demonstrated an inhibition of NF-kappaB activation correlated to a decrease of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Our results suggest that microspheres could be an useful tool to improve pharmacokinetics of decoy ODN and may represent a strategy to inhibit NF-kappaB activation in chronic inflammation.Pharmacological Research 08/2009; 60(1):33-40. DOI:10.1016/j.phrs.2009.03.012 · 3.98 Impact Factor