Transfer of Fusarium mycotoxins and 'masked' deoxynivalenol (deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside) from field barley through malt to beer.

Department of Food Chemistry and Analysis, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, Czech Republic.
Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A (Impact Factor: 2.22). 07/2008; 25(6):732-44. DOI: 10.1080/02652030701779625
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The fate of five Fusarium toxins--deoxynivalenol (DON), sum of 15- and 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (ADONs), HT-2 toxin (HT-2) representing the main trichothecenes and zearalenone (ZON) during the malting and brewing processes--was investigated. In addition to these 'free' mycotoxins, the occurrence of deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-Glc) was monitored for the first time in a beer production chain (currently, only DON and ZON are regulated). Two batches of barley, naturally infected and artificially inoculated with Fusarium spp. during the time of flowering, were used as a raw material for processing experiments. A highly sensitive procedure employing high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was validated for the analysis of 'free' Fusarium mycotoxins and DON-conjugate in all types of matrices. The method was also able to detect nivalenol (NIV), fusarenon-X (FUS-X) and T-2 toxin (T-2); nevertheless, none of these toxins was found in any of the samples. While steeping of barley grains (the first step in the malting process) apparently reduced Fusarium mycotoxin levels to below their quantification limits (5-10 microg kg(-1)), their successive accumulation occurred during germination. In malt, the content of monitored mycotoxins was higher compared with the original barley. The most significant increase was found for DON-3-Glc. During the brewing process, significant further increases in levels occurred. Concentrations of this 'masked' DON in final beers exceeded 'free' DON, while in malt grists this trichothecene was the most abundant, with the DON/DON-3-Glc ratio being approximately 5:1 in both sample series. When calculating mass balance, no significant changes were observed during brewing for ADONs. The content of DON and ZON slightly decreased by a maximum of 30%. Only traces of HT-2 were detected in some processing intermediates (wort after trub removal and green beer).

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The fate of deoxynivalenol (DON) and ochratoxin A (OTA) during the breadmaking process was studied. In particular, toxin content was analysed in mixed baking ingredients before kneading, after fermentation and proofing, and finally after baking. Fermentation and proofing were carried out at 30 °C for 1 h, while baking was performed at different temperature levels (from 170 to 210 °C) and baking times from 45 to 135 min, in a full factorial design. DON increased from unkneaded mix to fermented dough, and decreased due to baking; this trend depended on the initial concentration of DON in the flour. The level in the bread was significantly lower than in the initial mix of ingredients. In contrast, deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-G) content increased both during kneading and fermentation, and also during baking. Moreover, the results confirmed the high stability of OTA as no significant change in its content could be observed as a result of the breadmaking process. As conclusion, the design of bakery product processes may help to control DON in final products, because although quite stable, its levels can be reduced to some extent. However, high levels of DON-3-G were released during baking, and this point should be further investigated. Mycotoxins have been always considered as stable compounds; however, in depth knowledge of the processing steps that may lead to some reduction (although limited) and those which can stimulate their release from conjugated forms, will definitely help in their control in finished foodstuffs.
    Food Control. 01/2014; 40:234–242.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mycotoxins are frequent contaminants of grains, and breweries need, therefore, to pay close attention to the risk of contamination in beer made from such grains as barley and corn. The fate of 14 types of mycotoxin (aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone) during beer brewing was investigated in this study. Malt artificially spiked with each mycotoxin was put through the mashing, filtration, boiling and fermentation processes involved in brewing. After brewing, the levels of aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, patulin, and zearalenone were found to have decreased to less than 20% of their initial concentration. They had been adsorbed mainly to the spent grain and removed from the unhopped wort. Additionally, as zearalenone was known, patulin was metabolized to the less toxic compound during the fermentation process. The risk of carry-over to beer was therefore reduced for half of the mycotoxins studied. However, attention still needs to be paid to the risk of trichothecene contamination.
    Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 07/2013; · 1.27 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Deoxynivalenol (DON) and ochratoxin A (OTA) are mycotoxins produced by fungal species which can contaminate, alone or simultaneously, cereal-based products such as bread. Due to the increasing interest in the beneficial effects of dietary bran, bran bread has attained high consumption. Usually, the higher mycotoxin concentrations in cereals are found in the external layers of the grain (bran), leading to higher concentration of DON and OTA in breads with added bran. Moreover, the use of sourdough in breadmaking is increasing, but no studies about its effect in the mycotoxins content exist. The objective of this study was to determine the variation of concentration of these mycotoxins during the breadmaking process including the following factors: two initial mycotoxin concentrations in the initial mix of ingredients, four different bran contents, and use of sourdough. OTA was confirmed to be quite stable during the breadmaking process, regardless of the assayed factors. DON concentration during breadmaking was not significantly affected by bran content of bread. However, it was significantly affected by kneading and fermentation steps in different way depending on sourdough use and flour contamination level: if DON reduction occurs during fermentation, this leads to a safer situation, but the possible increase in DON should be considered with care, as it can compensate the expected dilution effect by recipe. Finally, the results on deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-G), although preliminar, suggest an increase of this toxin during fermentation, but mainly during baking.
    Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 03/2014; · 2.99 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 22, 2014