Transfer of Fusarium mycotoxins and 'masked' deoxynivalenol (deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside) from field barley through malt to beer

Department of Food Chemistry and Analysis, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, Czech Republic.
Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A (Impact Factor: 1.8). 07/2008; 25(6):732-44. DOI: 10.1080/02652030701779625
Source: PubMed


The fate of five Fusarium toxins--deoxynivalenol (DON), sum of 15- and 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (ADONs), HT-2 toxin (HT-2) representing the main trichothecenes and zearalenone (ZON) during the malting and brewing processes--was investigated. In addition to these 'free' mycotoxins, the occurrence of deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-Glc) was monitored for the first time in a beer production chain (currently, only DON and ZON are regulated). Two batches of barley, naturally infected and artificially inoculated with Fusarium spp. during the time of flowering, were used as a raw material for processing experiments. A highly sensitive procedure employing high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was validated for the analysis of 'free' Fusarium mycotoxins and DON-conjugate in all types of matrices. The method was also able to detect nivalenol (NIV), fusarenon-X (FUS-X) and T-2 toxin (T-2); nevertheless, none of these toxins was found in any of the samples. While steeping of barley grains (the first step in the malting process) apparently reduced Fusarium mycotoxin levels to below their quantification limits (5-10 microg kg(-1)), their successive accumulation occurred during germination. In malt, the content of monitored mycotoxins was higher compared with the original barley. The most significant increase was found for DON-3-Glc. During the brewing process, significant further increases in levels occurred. Concentrations of this 'masked' DON in final beers exceeded 'free' DON, while in malt grists this trichothecene was the most abundant, with the DON/DON-3-Glc ratio being approximately 5:1 in both sample series. When calculating mass balance, no significant changes were observed during brewing for ADONs. The content of DON and ZON slightly decreased by a maximum of 30%. Only traces of HT-2 were detected in some processing intermediates (wort after trub removal and green beer).

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    • "Generally, corn starch and corn syrup are among the adjuncts alternatively used for beer production (Hlywka & Bullerman 1999). With respect to the mycotoxins produced by Fusarium, it is possible to say that they are produced mainly in the field, although some toxin synthesis may occur during storage, or also, in the case of beer, they can increase during the germination of the barley during the malting and brewing process of the beer (Beattie, Schwarz, Horsley, Barr, & Casper, 1998; Lancova et al. 2008; Pietri, Bertuzzi, Agosti, & Donaldini, 2010; Wolf-Hall, 2007). Basically, the temperature and moisture conditions are crucial factors and thereby affect the fungal infection and toxin synthesis (Doyle, 1997). "
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    ABSTRACT: Beer is an alcoholic beverage consumed on a regular basis by many people around the world. Consequently, beer quality and, specifically, its impact on the future health of the consumer must be considered seriously. One issue is the action of mycotoxins and their impact on the beverage. In this sense, the objective of the present study was to determine the occurrence of Deoxynivalenol (DON) and Fumonisin B1 (FB1) in many artisanal beers from southern Brazil and, additionally, to evaluate their physico-chemical properties.
    • "The natural occurrence of D3G was first reported in contaminated wheat and maize [13]. Since then, D3G has also been detected in barley, oats and cereal-derived products [14] [15] [16]. Due to the toxic potential and high prevalence of DON, the European Commission (EC) established regulatory limits for this mycotoxin in cereal grains and cereal-based products intended for human consumption, by adopting regulation EC No 1881/2006 [17] and amending regulation EC No 1126/2007 [18]. "
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we compared the performance of conventional sample preparation techniques used in mycotoxin analyses against automated on-line sample clean-up for the determination of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its conjugated derivative, deoxynivalenol-3-β-d-glucoside (D3G), in cereal grains. Blank wheat and barley samples were spiked with DON and D3G, extracted with a mixture of acetonitrile:water (84:16, v/v) and processed by one of the following: extract and shoot, MycoSep(®) 227 clean-up columns, MycoSep 227 with an additional acetonitrile elution step and centrifugal filtration, followed by analysis with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Based on method performance characteristics and poor recoveries (<30%) obtained for the polar D3G with some techniques, the extract and shoot approach was chosen for the inter-laboratory method comparison study. Thus, the same spiked samples were analysed in parallel by another laboratory with an in-house validated on-line sample clean-up method, utilising TurboFlow™ chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry. Method validation was performed by determination of specificity, linearity, recovery, intra-day precision and the limits of detection and quantification. Matrix-matched linearity (R(2)>0.985) was established in the range of 100-1600 and 20-320μg/kg for DON and D3G, respectively. Average recoveries (%RSD) were acceptable with both methods for wheat and barley, ranging between 73% and 102% (3-12%) for DON and 72% and 98% (1-10%) for D3G. The benefit of using automated sample clean-up in comparison to extract and shoot is the ability to inject directly pure extracts into the mass spectrometer, offering faster analyses and improved sensitivity with minimum system maintenance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Chromatography A 11/2014; 1374. DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2014.11.046 · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    • "However, the use of barley for food production, as 10 pearled kernels, and for beverage in the malting industry, is increasing, and is 11 generally based on distichous varieties. The use of barley in the food chain can be 12 considered a new economic opportunity, but barley kernels with a high kernel size 13 and test weight (TW) are required (Błażewicz et al., 2007) together with a low 14 occurrence of contaminants (Lancova et al., 2008). Therefore, an improvement of the 15 crop techniques in order to increase grain yield, grain protein content (GPC) and 16 sanitation of this crop, could be a new opportunity to specialize feed and food barley 17 and raise farmer profitability. "
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    ABSTRACT: An agronomic improvement in grain yield and quality in winter wheat could be obtained through the application of strategies, such as application of foliar fungicides or fertilizers, that protect health of the last leaves and delay the senescence process during ripening. Only a few studies have reported the effect of these practices on barley, although these treatments could represent a new opportunity to specialize in feed and food barley markets and raise farmer profitability.The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different late-season strategies, N and S foliar fertilizers and fungicides applied at barley anthesis, on crop canopy greenness during the ripening stages and to establish the relationship between these strategies and barley yield and quality. Four field experiments have been conducted in NW Italy during 3 growing seasons, according to a full factorial design with four treatments, three barley cultivars and four replications. The following parameters were recorded: canopy greenness, grain yield, test weight (TW), thousand kernel weight (TKW), grain protein content (GPC), foliar disease incidence and severity and deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination. The collected data clearly underline the importance of prolonging canopy greenness of barley in order to increase grain yield and to improve quality. Of all the compared treatments, the application of a fungicide with an azole mixture at anthesis has shown to play the most important role in delaying the senescence process, and has resulted in a higher gran yield (+25%), TW (+1.3 kg hl−1) and TKW (+2.8 g).The effect of the fungicide treatment on barley grain yield was significant for all the compared cultivars and in almost all the environmental conditions, but led to a greater advantage in the cooler environments with prolonged ripening. The fungicide also led to a clear, significant control of foliar disease and a reduction in DON contamination.The use of N and S foliar fertilizers was able to prolong canopy greenness and enhance barley yield and quality but only in environments characterized by a prolonged grain filling period.
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